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(ō`sāj, ōsāj`), indigenous people of North America whose language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). In prehistoric times they lived with the Kansa, the Ponca, the Omaha, and the Quapaw in the Ohio valley, but by 1673 they had migrated to the vicinity of the Osage River in Missouri. They often conducted war against other Native Americans, and in the early 18th cent. allied themselves with the French against surrounding tribes, such as the Illinois. The Osage had a typical Plains-area culture (see under Natives, North AmericanNatives, North American,
peoples who occupied North America before the arrival of the Europeans in the 15th cent. They have long been known as Indians because of the belief prevalent at the time of Columbus that the Americas were the outer reaches of the Indies (i.e.
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). One distinctive trait, however, was the tribal division between the Wazhazhe, or meat eaters, and the Tsishu, or vegetarians.

In 1802, according to Lewis and Clark, three groups constituted the Osage—the Great Osage, on the Osage River; the Little Osage, farther up the same river; and the Arkansas band, on the Vermilion River, a tributary of the Arkansas. They then numbered some 5,500. By a series of treaties begun in 1810 the Osage ceded to the United States their extensive territory in Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma, and they moved to a reservation in N central Oklahoma. They have since been given the right to own their land individually. The discovery of oil on their reservation land in the early 20th cent., plus their landholdings, contributed to the prosperity of the Osage. In 1990 there were over 10,000 Osage in the United States. The Osage Museum in Pawhuska, Okla., the oldest continuous tribal museum in the country, documents their history.


See F. La Flesche, The Osage Tribe (1921, repr. 1970) and War Ceremony and Peace Ceremony of the Osage Indians (1939); J. J. Mathews, The Osages, Children of the Middle Waters (1961); W. D. Baird, The Osage People (1972).


river, c.360 mi (580 km) long, formed by the confluence of the Marais des Cygnes and the Little Osage rivers, W Mo. It flows NE to join the Missouri River near Jefferson City. Bagnell Dam (completed 1931) across the Osage River impounds the Lake of the Ozarks and also provides hydroelectricity. The power produced there is consumed mainly by St. Louis. The Osage River basin project provides for flood control, hydroelectric power, and recreational facilities.
References in periodicals archive ?
The FBI was finally able to deliver a measure of justice to the Osages, albeit too late for many victims.
But he goes on to reveal the many unresolved murders that preceded 1921 and the ongoing disenfranchisement of present-day Osages, adding to the sheer power of truth in Killers of the Flower Moon.
4) This article will contribute to this discussion by considering the impact of the logic of recognition within the context of the 2004-6 Osage reform process.
This article will continue the process of pulling apart these intertwined threads within settler colonialisms logic of recognition through a case study of the Osage Nation's 2004-6 citizenship reform debates.
Rollings attributes much of this resourcefulness to the beautiful and effective paired concepts of "Ga-ni-tha" and "moving to a new country," core cultural concepts with deep roots in Osage oral tradition and social structure.
In the late seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries the Osage adopted horses and European weapons and became a powerful force on the rich ecological borderland between the eastern woodlands and the Great Plains.
The literary historian said the Osage constitution is important because it is a founding document of Osage written literature.
The Osage leaders who wrote the 1881 constitution "knew the power of documents, of pieces of paper like this.
Osage cradleboards are fairly common in collections, probably because the Osage continued to use them long after other tribes discontinued this practice.
Though the Osage style baby boards have been almost totally relegated to museum displays, they were once a very functional means of portable infant care.