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(ôsh), city (1993 pop. 233,300), capital of Osh region, S Kyrgyzstan, in the Fergana ValleyFergana Valley
or Ferghana Valley,
region, 8,494 sq mi (22,000 sq km), Central Asia, divided among Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan. The Fergana Range (part of the Tian Shan system) rises in the northeast and the Pamir in the south.
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. Terminus of the Osh-Khorugh highway and Kyrgyzstan's second largest city, Osh has silk, cotton, textile, and food-processing industries; it also is a center of the illegal opium trade. One of the oldest settlements of Central Asia, Osh was for centuries a major silk-production center, strategically situated on a trade route to India. The old city adjoins the larger modern section. Sulayman Mt., or Taht-I-Suleiman [Solomon's throne], is a place of Muslim pilgrimage. Osh was the scene of violent Uzbek-Kyrgyz ethnic clashes in 1990 and again in 2010.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city; administrative center of Osh Oblast, Kirghiz SSR. Osh is situated where the Akbura River flows out of the foothills of the Alai Range into the Fergana Valley, at an elevation of 870–1,110 m. The city has a railroad station, and it is a junction of highways to a number of cities, including Frunze, Khorog, Andizhan, and Kyzyl-Kiia. In 1974 the population was 143,000 (33,000 in 1939, 65,000 in 1959, and 120,000 in 1970).

One of the oldest cities in Middle Asia, Osh was considered the third largest city in Fergana as early as the tenth century. Trade routes from Middle Asia to China and India passed through the city. In 1876, after the conquest of the Kokand Khanate, Osh was incorporated into Russia. Under Soviet power, it has been transformed into a major industrial center. (In Kirghizia, it is second in importance to the city of Frunze.)

Osh produces a third of the oblast’s industrial output. Light industry is the leading branch. Located in the city are the largest textile combine in Middle Asia, a silk combine, a cotton-ginning plant, and a garment and footwear factory. Food processing, a well-developed branch of industry, is represented by a meatpacking plant, a milk plant, and a fruit wine combine. Machine building and metalworking are also among the city’s industries (a pump plant and a motor-vehicle repair plant). The production of building materials is being developed (a building materials combine, reinforced-concrete products plants, and a brickyard). There is a furniture factory in the city.

Among the educational institutions in Osh are a pedagogical institute; the general technical department of the Frunze Polytechnic Institute; agricultural, Soviet trade, and construction technicums; a branch of a road transportation technicum; and pedagogical and music schools. Also located in the city are the Uzbek Theater of Musical Drama, a museum of regional studies, and a tourist center.


Aidashev, T. Gorod Osh. Frunze, 1968.
Daniiarov, S., and K. Rakhmanov. Po solnechnoi Kirgizii. Frunze, 1968.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The winners of the festival were awarded with diplomas and valuable prizes, and the rest of the participants were awarded with certificates of gratitude from the Osh Mayor's Office.
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The 3,000-year-old city of Osh, is home to the largest outdoor market in Central Asia and for the first time will have direct air links to Dubai.
The article aims to analyse the knowledge, qualifications, and professional competences of OSH service employees--a group that is crucial for maintaining an appropriate safety level in the organisation--in the context of employers' expectations.
But how do we ensure that OSH training is an integral part of university education rather than something that young people encounter only when they enter the world of employment?
But how do we ensure that OSH training is an integral part of university education, rather than something that young people encounter only when they enter the world of employment?
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