an ancient site of a fortified town near the village of Sainino, Dubenki Raion, Mordovian ASSR. It was excavated from 1946 to 1949.
Osh-Pando was inhabited intermittently during the Bronze Age (Fat’ianovo culture) and the early Iron Age and up to the end of the first millennium A.D. Especially interesting were finds that provided information on the use of plows, on stock raising, on the crafts, and on the everyday life of the population from the sixth to ninth centuries. The last inhabitants of the fortified settlement, in the opinion of P. D. Stepanov, who headed the excavations, were the ancient Ugrians.