The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



N. (real name Valerian Valerianovich Obolenskii). Born Mar. 25 (Apr. 6), 1887, in the village of Byki, L’gov District, Kursk Province; died Sept. 1, 1938. Soviet party leader and government figure; economist. Member of the Communist Party from 1907.

The son of a veterinarian, Osinskii studied at Moscow University in 1905 and in Germany in 1906. Between 1907 and 1917 he engaged in party work in Moscow, Tver’, and Kharkov and was arrested a number of times. After the February Revolution of 1917 he became a member of the Moscow oblast bureau of the RSDLP(B). He was a delegate to the Sixth Congress of the RSDLP(B). In October 1917 he was a member of the Kharkov military revolutionary committee.

After the triumph of the October Revolution of 1917, Osinskii became director of the State Bank of the RSFSR and chairman of the Supreme Council on the National Economy, a position he occupied until March 1918. He then worked on the editorial staff of Pravda and in the Supreme Council on the National Economy. In the spring of 1918 he participated in the writing of the platform of the Left Communists. He was chairman of the Tula provincial executive committee and a member of the board of the People’s Commissariat for Foodstuffs in 1920. Osinskii played an active role in the antiparty Democratic Centralism faction in 1920 and 1921.

From 1921 to 1923, Osinskii was deputy people’s commissar of agriculture and deputy chairman of the Supreme Council on the National Economy. He joined the Trotskyite opposition but then parted company with it. In 1923 and 1924 he served as plenipotentiary of the USSR in Sweden. From 1925 to 1928 he was a member of the presidium of the State Planning Committee of the USSR; he was also director of the Central Board of Statistics. In 1929 he became deputy chairman of the Supreme Council on the National Economy of the USSR.

Osinskii was a delegate to the Seventh through Eleventh and Fourteenth through Seventeenth Party Congresses. At the Tenth and Fourteenth through Seventeenth Congresses he was elected a candidate member of the Central Committee. He served as a delegate to the First Congress of the Comintern in 1919. Osinskii was the author of a number of works on economics.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
One early morning in July 1929 Valerian Osinskii set out from Moscow's Red Square in a Model A Ford accompanied by three other cars.
Osinskii did more than simply lament the condition of Soviet roads.
This article enquires into the fate of Osinskii's dream, and more generally the role of roads and their construction in a society that putatively was travelling along the 'path to communism' at a rapid pace under Stalin.
The paucity of decent roads figured in debates about the future Soviet automobile industry provoked by Osinskii's articles in Pravda.
Osinskii and his supporters in Avtodor did not intend to delay the improvement of roads.
(15) Anecdotal accounts by the few Westerners who ventured outside major cities in automobiles at this time echo Osinskii's lamentations about the roads of Voronezh.
In the letter, Tolstoi discusses the hanging of Valerian Osinskii (1853-79), a member of a terrorist group, whom he calls a "wonderful youth" involved in the writing and spreading of "leaflets" (63: 68).
(30) In the published version, Tolstoi offers a solemn obituary to the wonderful dead, the "best, highly moral, sacrificial, kind people, as were Perovskaia, Osinskii, Lizogub, and many others" who wasted their lives in the pursuit of the unattainable and became accomplices and participants in murder (36: 150-51).
The execution of Anatolii Svetlogub in "God's Way and Man's"--a wonderful youth of the likes of Osinskii in Tolstoi's earlier renditions--is Tolstoi's deepest allegory of revolutionary martyrdom.
For example, Kravchinskii's portrayal of the deaths of Osinskii and Lizogub resembles the purely hagiographic perspective of the Old Believer who sees a smiling youth "with light-exuding eyes and curly locks" climbing the chariot in Tolstoi's story (42: 209).
(34) Tolstoi mentioned Lizogub alongside Osinskii and Perovskaia favorably in his preface to Chertkov's essay on revolution, 1904.
Pointedly, Zinov'ev attacked Democratic Centralist Nikolai Osinskii for suggesting that Bolsheviks "learn how to become public-sphere actors," accusing him of nourishing a nostalgia for the days of zemstvo public activism, of Petr Struve at the time of the "Osvobozhdenie" (Liberation) movement.