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caliph: see UthmanUthman
or Othman
, c.574–656, 3d caliph (644–56), also known as Uthman ibn al-Affan; son-in-law of Muhammad. He belonged to the great Umayyad family and was selected as caliph after the murder of Umar.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Ottoman, Othman), a dynasty of Turkish sultans founded by Osman I, who ruled from 1299 or 1300 to 1324 or 1326.

The best-known sultans of the dynasty, in addition to Osman I, were Bayazid I Yilderim (the Lightning, 1389–1402), Mehmed II Fatih (the Conqueror, 1444 and 1451–81), Selim I Yavuz (the Terrible or the Cruel, 1512–20), Suleiman I Kanuni (the Lawgiver; in European literature the Magnificent, 1520–66), Selim III (1789–1807), Mahmud II (1808–39), and Abdul-Hamid II (1876–1909). The last Osman sultan, Mehmed VI Vahdettin (1918–22), fled from Turkey after the sultanate was abolished on Nov. 1, 1922. The Grand National Assembly of Turkey elected as caliph the Osman prince Abdul-Medjid. After the abolishment of the caliphate on Mar. 3, 1924, all members of the Osman dynasty were exiled.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
"We all thought that it was a historic opportunity and that the PKK and the Turkish state could have been on the same side, [then he] equated the PKK with ISIS at a time when the PKK fighters were chasing the ISIS fighters in various areas," Osman said, adding that their solidarity is important to getting rid of the international threat ISIL poses and to providing a new platform for their relationship.
In 2010, five major liberal Arab and Muslim intellectuals died: the Egyptian Nasr Hamid Abou Zayd, the Moroccan 'Abid al-Jabiri, the Kuwaiti Ahmad al-Baghdadi, the Algerian Mohamed Arkoun, and the Egyptian-American Fathi Osman. Even though Osman is not as prominent as the other four, his biography can be summed up as follows: "How beautiful are the pure flowing fountains, and the free true openness of thinking." Ghada Osman's tribute to her late father is based on family documents, interviews, and archival materials.
Osman has shone this season to earn an England call-up from Roy Hodgson and help propel Everton into the frame for a return to Europe.
Osman, from Tufters Fold, Bailiff Bridge, was inspired to take on the gruelling 26-mile challenge to raise money for Sense, the national deafblind charity, after reading about their work and following previous fundraising for children with sensory deprivation.
At 31, Osman was well aware his international bow could easily be his first and last, and that led to a difficult decision about whether to shave to avoid any embarrassing images of his magical moment.
Osman is a poetic collator, a creative editor of historical documents.
Osman probably knows he has always lacked a yard of pace but he makes up for that with a superb first touch.
Swansea may feel aggrieved the set-piece was awarded following a driving run into the box from Drenthe, but there was no doubt about the finish, the winger's delivery planted into the far corner by Osman.
Violent thug Atieb Osman, from Handsworth, punched and kicked his 17-year-old victim before dragging her across the road and stamping on her collarbone, breaking it.
Rawalpindi, Sept 22(ANI): The perpetrators of Pakistan Army General Headquarters (GHQ) attack in Rawalpindi wanted to take top officials as hostages and then demand the release of their fellow terrorists, attack mastermind Aqeel alias Osman has told a military court.
LEADING fashion designer Osman Yousefzada has been asked to create a one-off bag as part of a three-day fashion and beauty extravaganza in Birmingham.