Again, it would seem unlikely that ANP would differentially affect thirst and AVP osmoreceptor
or sodium receptors activate circuits that subserve thirst and sodium appetite, and a parallel inhibitory circuit of sodium appetite involves the LPBN.
However, this center has a higher set point than the osmoreceptors
and responds to osmolalities[greater than] 290 mmol/L.
in the hypothalamus respond when plasma osmolarity changes by as little as one per cent, first stimulating ADH release and then thirst.
The noradrenergic neurons (A2 group) of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) that receives projections from carotid afferents and peripheral osmoreceptors
have been highlighted among these regions [12,13].
When plasma osmolality rises, it stimulates osmoreceptors
located in the hypothalamus, which, in turn, sends signals to the vasopressin synthesizing cells located in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus.
Dry mucous membranes, hyperosmolality, and reduced plasma volume activate hypothalamic osmoreceptors
, which trigger thirst and stimulate the secretion of ADH from the posterior pituitary.
Alternatively, mouthpart osmoreceptors
might provide information about the chemical quality of prey items.
Water-permeability of the late distal tubule is influenced by antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which is produced by the hypothalamus and released in response to input by systemic baroreceptors, osmoreceptors
, and angiotensin II.
Strategically located near the supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus are osmoreceptors
which create a feedback control system for ADH secretion.
This increase is sensed by osmoreceptors
in the hypothalamus which responds by releasing AVP.
and the amphipod Gammarus oceanicus, and Tazaki and Tanino (1973) concluded that the antennae of the spiny lobster Panuliris japonicus have mechanoreceptors that also function as osmoreceptors
. There is also evidence that the legs of crustaceans have receptors that provide important information about salinity.