diuretic

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Related to Osmotic diuretic: loop diuretic

diuretic

(dī'yərĕt`ĭk), drug used to increase urine formation and output. Diuretics are prescribed for the treatment of edemaedema
, abnormal accumulation of fluid in the body tissues or in the body cavities causing swelling or distention of the affected parts. Edema of the ankles and lower legs (in ambulatory patients) is characteristic of congestive heart failure, but it can accompany other
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 (the accumulation of excess fluids in the tissues of the body), which is often the result of underlying disease of the kidneys, liver, lungs, or heart (e.g., congestive heart failurecongestive heart failure,
inability of the heart to expel sufficient blood to keep pace with the metabolic demands of the body. In the healthy individual the heart can tolerate large increases of workload for a considerable length of time.
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). They are also used to treat hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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 (high blood pressure) and glaucomaglaucoma
, ocular disorder characterized by pressure within the eyeball caused by an excessive amount of aqueous humor (the fluid substance filling the eyeball). This causes pressure against the optic nerve and compression of the blood vessels of the eye—the resulting
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. They act on the kidneys, modifying the absorption and excretion of water and electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Types of diuretics include thiazides, loop diuretics, and potassium-sparing diuretics.
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diuretic

[‚dī·yu̇′red·ik]
(pharmacology)
Any agent that increases the volume and flow of urine.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

diuretic

a drug or agent that increases the flow of urine
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
It has been proposed that hypernatremia frequently results from the therapeutic use of osmotic diuretics, like mannitol, in patients with cerebral edema and a raised ICP and that patients with hypernatremia have a significantly higher mortality rate than patients without (Aiyagari et al., 2006).
It is important for nurses who administer osmotic diuretics to evaluate and understand the current research to provide educated and appropriate care.
Another osmotic diuretic, glycerol has been used to lower ICP by osmotic brain dehydration; it also decreases cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production and increases cerebral blood flow to ischemic brain tissue.[23] Glycerol is given orally; intravenous preparation is not commercially available.24 Glycerol can be given intermittently at doses between 0.5 - 1 gram/kg every 4 - 6 hours.
Osmotic diuretics (like mannitol) and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (like acetazolamide) produce an opposite effect comparing to the majority of the other diuretics, decreasing lithium concentration (being therefore classically used to treat lithium's intoxication).