Ostade


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Ostade

 

a family of Dutch painters.

Adriaen van Ostade. Baptized Dec. 10, 1610, in Haarlem; buried there May 2, 1685. One of the masters of the peasant genre in 17th-century Dutch painting.

Ostade was most likely a pupil of Frans Hals. Initially influenced by A. Brouwer, Ostade painted coarsely grotesque scenes of carousals and brawls. At the end of the 1630’s, he came under the influence of Rembrandt and his works took on brownish-golden tones and were marked by an emphasis on chiaroscuro. The general mood of his paintings of this period was one of good-natured humor and gentle contemplation, for example, The Flutist (c. 1660; Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow). Ostade’s graphic works (etchings, watercolors, drawings) are distinguished by a picturesque quality and astute observations of life.

Isack van Ostade. Baptized July 2, 1621, in Haarlem; buried there Oct. 16, 1649. Brother and pupil of Adriaen, who influenced his early works.

Ostade’s works of the 1640’s, which included outdoor scenes and landscapes (especially winter landscapes), were distinguished by a silvery palette that subtly conveyed the elusive qualities of light, for example, The Frozen Lake (1642; Hermitage, Leningrad).

REFERENCES

[Kuznetsov, Iu. I.] Adrian van Ostade. Vystavka: Katalog-putevoditel’. Leningrad, 1960.
Rosenberg, A. Adriaen und Isack van Ostade. Bielefeld-Leipzig, 1900.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Art works of Italian (Guercino, Leandro Bassano, Francesco Solimena, Lorenzo Bartolini), French (Jules Dupre, Gaspard Dughet, Pascal Dagnan-Bouveret, Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant), Dutch/Flemish (Frans Hals, Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt, Adriaen Brouwer, Adriaen van Ostade, Justus Sustermans, Pieter Claesz), German (Johann Heinrich Roos, Friedrich August von Kaulbach) and Polish (Jan Styka) painters are displayed in the museum.
Semiramis, K.App.11 1779 Vogler, Georg Joseph Lampedo 1779 Cannabich, Christian Elektra 1781 Neefe, Daniel Gottlieb Sophonisbe 1776 Zumsteeg, Johann Rudolf Fruhlingsfeier 1777 Tamira 1788 Schulz, Johann Minona oder die 1785 Angelsachsen Danzi, Franz Der Triumph der Treue 1789 Iriarte, TomAs de Guzman el Bueno 1790 Pugnani, Gaetano Werther 1790 Paradis, Maria Theresia von Ariadne und Bacchus 1791 Der Schulkandidat 1792 Eberl, Anton Pyramus und Tisbe 1794 [Nineteenth century] Weigl, Joseph Adrian von Ostade 1807 Die Schweizerfamilie 1811 Der Bergsturz 1812 Muller, Wenzel Samson 1808 Weber, Carl Maria von Der erste Ton 1808 Eberwein, Carl Proserpina 1814 Schubert, Franz Abschied von der Erde, 1826 D.829 Weber, Bernard Anselm Der Gang nach den 1830 Eisenhammer Berlioz, Hector Lelio, Op.
Although the first English grammars--that is, grammars about the English language written in English--date back to the late sixteenth century (Michael [1970] 20io; Vorlat 1975), it was during the eighteenth century--the so-called "Age of Correctness" (Leonard 1929; Baugh and Cable [1951] 1993)--that the English language went through serious attempts at grammar codification and prescription (Tieken-Boon van Ostade 2012; Curzan 2014, 64-92).
The curious reader can find more detailed descriptions of modern English grammar in the works mentioned in note 13, and further information on the history of English grammar in different canonical books and research monographs in the field, such as Michael (1970), Padley (1976, 1985, 1988), (15) Tieken-Boon van Ostade (2008) or Vorlat (1963, 1975), to mention but a few.
Most striking, perhaps, is the small squatting man revealed through conservation work, who is shown relieving himself in Isack van Ostade's A Village Fair with a Church Behind (1643; Fig.
(3.) Here and throughout, I have rendered Wheeler's dialect in contemporary English based on my experience of the text in consultation with Wheeler's glossary, several historical dictionaries, and other accounts of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century English, in particular, Richard Bailey's Nineteenth-Century English (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998); Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade's An Introduction to Late Modern English (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009); and Raymond Hickey's collection Eighteenth-Century English: Ideology and Change (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
A judge heard the palace attendant stole An Elderly Couple in an Arbour, by Dutch master Adriaen van Ostade, as well as a PS4,000 bowl and PS400 in silver cutlery, because officials didn't show sympathy when he broke his elbow.
van Ostade, "Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human cervical-vaginal fluid using colposcopy samples," Proteome Science, vol.
(15) Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade explains that the significant increase in the output of grammars of English in the eighteenth century "can be related to the need for the codification of the language in the absence of an Academy that would have taken this in hand, as well as to increased social mobility, particularly during the second half of the century, and the concomitant need for grammars to provide linguistic guidance ..." (10).
Irrespective of the controversies mentioned above, it remains a fact that throughout the Early Modern English period the level of spelling variation lowered considerably, and in the second half of the seventeenth century, in printed texts, it achieved a state close in many respects to the present one, whereas handwritten documents attained this level much later (Gorlach 2001: 78, Salmon 1999: 44, Tieken-Boon van Ostade 2009: 46-50).
Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade's "Communicative Competence and the Language of Eighteenth-century Letters" (24-45) makes a case for the study of an individual's communicative competence, or idiolect, here focused on the perhaps surprising example of the 'prescriptivist' per se, Robert Lowth.