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(1) See also BPG.

(2) (Border Gateway Protocol) The routing protocol of the Internet. Developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), BGP is a scalable protocol that is used to span the independent "autonomous" networks that make up the Internet. See autonomous system.

No Guarantees
BGP was designed to create a loop-free path through independently operated networks that have their own policies and objectives. As such, the route does not guarantee the shortest path, lowest cost or greatest bandwidth from the beginning to end of the transmission.

Too Fragile Perhaps
Often criticized as being vulnerable, BGP updates have been the cause of many Internet outages over the years. For example, BGP was blamed for the Facebook, Messenger, Instagram, WhatsApp outage in October 2021 that left hundreds of millions without communications for six hours.

Old and New Addressing
BGP is a path vector protocol that superseded EGP. BGP supports CIDR addressing, which increased the number of available IPv4 addresses, and Multiprotocol BGP supports IPv4 and the subsequent IPv6 addressing schemes (see CIDR and IPv6). See EGP and routing protocol.
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References in periodicals archive ?
We demonstrate that after oral ingestion, MK-7 is more effective in both catalyzing osteocalcin carboxylation in bone and counteracting coumarin anticoagulants in the liver.
The researchers measured change in osteocalcin. The change in the supplement group was -70.3.
Concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D3 (25-hydroxyvitamin D, the inactive form), and osteocalcin, a marker of bone formation, were determined in plasma by chemiluminescence using Cobas e601 (Roche Diagnostics).
'We are not only building a detailed understanding of how age-related memory loss originates in the brain, we've shown how osteocalcin interacts with key proteins in the brain to boost memory,' informed Eric R.
In a series of molecular and behavioral experiments, the team found that RbAp48 controls the expression levels of two other proteins regulated from osteocalcin.
Osteocalcin (OC) made by osteoblasts throughout bone formation is the most copious non-collagenous matrix protein in bone12,17-19.
The present study aimed to evaluate the validity of Osteocalcin (OCN) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) immunohistochemistry in discriminating OSA from OPBT.
Osteocalcin levels (total) were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) (Alpco [Salem, NH, USA], intra- and interassay coefficients of variation [CVs] 4.9% and 6.0%, respectively, for total OC).
Quantitative assay of osteocalcin, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and thyroid function tests (TSH, FT4, and FT3) was performed at Immunoassay Laboratories, the pioneer laboratories for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Nigeria.
Osteocalcin is regarded as an important indicator of osteogenesis.
Vitamin K is a bone quality marker which aids to carboxylates osteocalcin to form bone matrix.