These fragments may then adhere to the synovial membrane and cause fibrosis or chondromatosis, eventually forming osteophytes
or subchondral cysts (5).
The most common TMJ osseous change was flattening (41.3%), followed by erosion (34.6%), sclerosis (16.2%), and osteophytes
Ultrafast dynamic computed tomography myelography for the precise identification of high-flow cerebrospinal fluid leaks caused by spiculated spinal osteophytes
. J Neurosurg Spine.
Contacting bones respond by thickening resulting in osteophytes
. These can grow inside joint capsules or in the intervertebral foramen, placing pressure on the existing nerve roots and emerging spinal nerves which could manifest as shooting pain, tingling, pins and needles, numbness, and specific muscle weakness.
Improvement following TKA was stratified by size of osteophyte
in the locations measured in this study.
The most commonly used diagnostic criteria were defined by Resnick and Niwayama : (i) flowing calcifications and ossifications along the anterolateral aspect of at least 4 contiguous vertebral bodies, with or without osteophytes
; (ii) preservation of intervertebral disk height in the involved areas and an absence of excessive disk disease; and (iii) the absence of bony ankylosis of facet joints and absence of sacroiliac erosion, sclerosis, or bony fusion, although narrowing and sclerosis of facet joints are acceptable .
This result can be due to other parameters added to JSW, which are osteophyte
formation, subchondral sclerosis and cysts.
Myelopathy is either caused by developmental canal stenosis or occurs as result of opacification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), central disc herniation, osteophytes
and listhesis3 (figure 1).
Interestingly, there is no conclusive correlation between the osteophyte
size and symptoms.
LSS is characterized by narrowing of the spinal canal, which is caused by disc herniation combined with osteophytes
, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, and mechanical compression of the spinal nerve roots [5, 6].
X-ray examination revealed narrowing of the medial joint space and a low level of osteophyte
formation accompanied by sclerosis and mild deformity of the subchondral bone.
They defined radiographic hip OA as a Kellgren-Lawrence grade of 2 or more - that is, definite superolateral or superomedial joint space narrowing and a definite osteophyte
. They used various clinical symptoms of hip OA for comparison.