5) The ostmark
was issued by Germany in 1918 for use in eastern areas under German control at that time.
, Emma -- SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Stockholm.
A P ostmark
rating of 154 suggests that he would have been third in a much stronger renewal of this race last season - and that is without factoring in any improvement that is almost certainly forthcoming.
com; Henrik Ostmark
, Move PR (for i3 Europe), +46 8 696 12 836, Henrik.
Right: Hisult side table, pounds 16; Frok lamp base, pounds 20; Ostmark
lamp shade, pounds 2.
On 6 February 1990, Chancellor Kohl decreed that West Germany would exchange the DM for the ostmark
at a ratio of one to one, which compared with a free market exchange rate of 7 to 1 (Marsh 1992, 178).
At the time of monetary union, earnings in East Germany were about a third of those in West Germany, given the one-for-one exchange rate, having already risen by severalfold in ostmark
terms up to June 1990.
Chancellor Kohl's politically motivated decision to swap every Ostmark
for one hard D-mark at almost five times black market rates and boost eastern wages has proved economically ill-fated - crippling the competitiveness of chronically subsidised industries and forcing millions out of work.
In the author's quest for the truth, he uses documentary materials from twenty-nine German and Austrian archives and focuses on what happened to the Gypsies in Germany, the Ostmark
(annexed Austria), the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (the Czech Republic) and Alsace-Lorraine.
Faced with this continuing fiscal stimulus, together with rising wages in the Eastern Lander, the generous rate at which Ostmark
savings balances were converted into D-mark deposits and uncertainty as to whether past monetary relationships would hold good in the enlarged Germany, the Bundesbank progressively tightened monetary policy.
Others, including most prominently the Bundesbank and the market, where the rate was between 7 and 10 ostmarks
per DM, had the actual exchange grossly overvaluing the ostmark
Moves towards a reunion with West Germany are well under way and, as a helpful beginning, the enfeebled Ostmark
is to be given parity with the enduringly vigorous Dmark.