Ostroumov, Aleksei

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Ostroumov, Aleksei Aleksandrovich


Born Dec 27, 1844 (Jan. 8, 1845), in Moscow; died there July 11 (24), 1908. Russian doctor of internal medicine.

In 1871, Ostroumov graduated from the medical faculty of Moscow University, where he later worked in the clinic headed by G. A. Zakhar’in. From 1879 he was a professor at the clinic of hospital therapy of Moscow University; he headed the clinic from 1880 to 1903. In 1944 the clinic became the Ostroumov hospital therapy subdepartment of the First Moscow Medical Institute.

In works written between 1873 and 1879, Ostroumov dealt principally with physiology—for example, the origin of the first heart tone (1873) and the innervation of the blood vessels and sweat glands (1876). According to Ostroumov, the severity of an illness is determined not only by morphological changes but also, and most important, by functional disturbances. He devoted particular attention to the study of the patient’s environment. Ostroumov advocated the concept of the unity and integrity of the body. His clinical lectures (1884–85) were of great significance for the foundation and development of internal medicine of that time.

Ostroumov founded an important medical school, which included D. A. Burmin, V. A. Vorob’ev, and E. F. Got’e. He served as chairman of the Moscow Medical Society from 1879 to 1889. One of the large hospitals in Moscow is named in his honor.


Izbr. trudy. Moscow, 1950. (Contains references.)


Gukasian, A. G. A. A. Ostroumov i ego kliniko-teoreticheskie vzgliady. Moscow, 1950. (Contains references.)
Lushnikov, A. G. Klinika vnutrennikh boleznei v Rossii. Moscow, 1962.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.