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(ō`tō), Native North Americans, also called the Otoe, whose language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). The Oto had a Plains area type of culture. At one time, with the Iowa and the Missouri, they formed part of the Winnebago nation, N of the Great Lakes. The Oto with the Missouri left the nation, but after a quarrel the Oto separated from the Missouri and settled in S Minnesota. Constantly beset by overpowering enemies, they were driven south and joined the Pawnee near the mouth of the Platte River. In 1880–82 the Oto migrated to Oklahoma, where they once again live with the Missouri. In 1990 there were some 1,800 Oto-Missouri in the United States.


See B. B. Chapman, The Otoes and the Missourias (1965).

References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, the NPV of all the cashflows of the OTOS cycle is given by
The expected lifetime NPV of the special OTOS cycle followed by all regular cycles is given by:
Thus, in the OTOS situation, the retailer wants to determine his special price and order quantity so as to maximize Equation (11).
Once the optimized values of the special OTOS cycle are established, the net NPV advantage of the special OTOS policies is given by:
If the net advantage is negative, the retailer would reject the OTOS discount.
Now, assume that the manufacturer has offered an OTOS discount of $1/unit (i.e., 10% of the regular unit cost), available at the time of the retailer's next order.
Thus, the retailer's net increase in lifetime NPV due to the OTOS is $886.
As can be seen, when the discount is only $0.40 (or 5% of the normal unit cost), using special OTOS policies would result in a net loss to the reseller.
In Table 3, we provide a brief summary of the alternative values of parameters used, the resulting indices of long term and short-term advantage of the optimal OTOS strategies.
As the ordering cost of the special order increases, the advantage of the special OTOS policies declines.
As expected life increases, the short-term advantages of the OTOS policies increase while the long-term advantages decline.
Because manufacturers and vendors of S-Obs products often offer a one-time-only discount for such products, we then extended our model to accommodate the OTOS situations.