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Hapsburg, Otto von

Hapsburg, Otto von, 1912–2011, Austrian archduke and former pretender to the Austro-Hungarian throne, son of Emperor Charles I and Empress Zita. After World War II began, he went to the United States and made an unsuccessful attempt to form an Austrian legion to fight Germany. Returning to Europe in 1946, he remained in exile. In 1961, he relinquished his claims to the throne and subsequently was allowed to visit Austria. He was elected to the European Parliament from Bavaria (1979 and 1989), and championed European unification. An author and lecturer, he wrote The Social Order of Tomorrow (1957, tr. 1959) and a biography of the emperor Charles V (tr. 1970).
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



German kings and Holy Roman emperors:

Otto I. Born Nov. 23, 912; died May 7, 973, in Memleben. King of Germany from 936; Holy Roman emperor from 962. A member of the Saxon dynasty. Son of Henry I.

In his struggle against the separatism of the hereditary dukes of Swabia, Bavaria, and Lotharingia (Lorraine), Otto I relied on support from the bishops and abbots, granting them broad immunities (the Ottonian privileges). He transferred particular parts of the duchies to episcopal administration, often putting his relatives in charge of them. These measures served as the prerequisites for strengthening royal authority in Germany between the tenth century and the first half of the 11th.

Otto I continued the conquest of the lands of the Polabian Slavs and, in order to convert them to Christianity, established the archbishopric of Magdeburg (968). Commanding German and Czech troops, he defeated the Hungarians at Lechfeld (955) and put an end to their attempts to penetrate the West. In 951 he subjugated Lombardy and received the title of king of Italy. Under the pretext of rendering aid to Pope John XII, who had been driven out by the people of Rome, Otto I launched a campaign against Rome in 961. On Feb. 2, 962, he received the imperial crown from the pope, thus laying the foundation for the Holy Roman Empire. Taking advantage of the decline of the papacy, Otto I made it subordinate in fact to his authority. He was unsuccessful in his attempt to subjugate southern Italy in the campaign of 967–971.

Otto II. Born 955; died Dec. 7, 983, in Rome. King of Germany and Holy Roman emperor from 973. Son of Otto I.

In Germany Otto II continued to strengthen the episcopal system established by Otto I. Among the measures intended to counteract the increasing strength of the dukes was the suppression of a separatist revolt led by the duke of Bavaria (976). In 981, Otto II invaded southern Italy, attempting to capture it as a “dowry” for his wife, the Byzantine princess Theophano. However, he encountered resistance from Byzantium and from the Arabs, who defeated him at Crotone (Calabria) in 982. As a result of an uprising during his reign (983), most of the Polabian Slavs were freed from German domination for a long time.

Otto III. Born 980; died Jan. 23, 1002, in Paterno, near Viterbo, Italy. King of Germany from 983; Holy Roman emperor from 996. Son of Otto II.

Until Otto III came of age (995), his mother Theophano (until 991) and his grandmother Adelaide served as regents. Concentrating on efforts to carry out a Utopian plan to revive the Roman “world empire” with Rome as its capital, Otto III spent most of his time in Italy.

Otto IV (Otto of Brunswick). Born circa 1175 or 1182; died May 19, 1218, in Harzburg Castle. King of Germay from 1198; Holy Roman emperor from 1209. A member of the Guelph dynasty. Son of Henry the Lion. Nephew of the English king Richard I the Lionhearted. Count of Poitou.

After the death of Emperor Henry VI of Hohenstaufen (1197), Otto IV was put forward by the Guelphs as an “antiking” in opposition to Philip of Swabia (Henry VI’s brother). Otto IV waged a prolonged struggle against Philip and was confirmed as king of Germany after Philip’s murder in 1208. At first, he received support from Innocent III, in return for promising certain concessions to the papacy. However, after Otto IV attempted to capture the Kingdom of Sicily (1210), which was under the supreme authority of the pope, Innocent III excommunicated him and made Frederick of Hohenstaufen (Henry VI’s son) the king of Germany. After his defeat at Bouvines (1214), Otto IV was in fact deprived of his power.


Kolesnitskii, N. F. “Issledovanie po istorii feodal’nogo gosudarstva v Germanii.” In Uch. zap. Moskovskogo oblastnogo ped. in-ta. Kafedra Vseobschei istorii, 1959, vol. 81, issue 2.
Müller-Mertens, E. Das Zeitalter der Ottonen. Berlin, 1955.
Holzmann, R. Geschichte der sächsischen Kaiserzeit, 3rd ed. Berlin, 1955.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Rudolf . 1869--1937, German theologian: his best-known work is The Idea of the Holy (1923)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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Otto Addo represented Ghana at the FIFA World Cup in 2006, making two appearances at the mundial as the West Africans reach the round of 16 in Germany.
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The comments by the Warmbiers come after Trump's statements following the summit, saying Kim was not responsible for what happened to Otto. "Some really bad things happened to Otto - some really, really bad things," Trump said.
But experts have questioned whether this was the case, and a lengthy investigation by writer Doug Clark has ruled that Otto may have attempted suicide.
I cycled 4 kilometres and bought multiple copies of the magazine that day; copies that are now with my grandparents, relatives, and parents." Now, a Pune-based Applied Mathematics student, she always thought of Otto as a sunflower.
"Clearly having NACDS lobby for what the industry needs from legislators and regulators is really, really important, " Otto notes.
Complainant James Morrison was walking his dog Cassie when Otto ran at them.
Otto, who has been chief executive since December 2015, said he believed the indoor model which IMG Worlds pioneered in Dubai will provide a blueprint for the future of theme park entertainment in countries like the UAE.
According to Otto, policy makers are taking one of two routes toward science: 1) they are denying the science, or 2) they are pretending that problems related to science do not exist.