Otto Krümmel

Krümmel, Otto


Born July 8, 1854, in Essen; died Oct. 12, 1912, in Cologne. German oceanographer. Studied at the Universities of Leipzig (1873–75) and Göttingen (1875–78). Professor at the Naval Academy in Kiel (1883–1911). In 1889 he directed oceanographic work during the German expedition in the Atlantic Ocean aboard the National.

In 1878, Krümmel proposed a method of classifying the various subdivisions of the world’s oceans on the basis of morphological indicators. In 1907 he further developed his classification system by incorporating the use of hydrologic indicators.


Versuch einer vergleichenden Morphologic der Meeresraume. Leipzig, 1879.
Geophysikalische Beobachtungen der Plankton-Expedition. Kiel, 1893. Der Ozean, 2nd ed. Leipzig-Vienna, 1902.
Handbuch der Ozeanographie, 2nd ed., vols. 1–2. Stuttgart, 1907–11. (With G. Boguslawski.)