After he completed his tour of duty as French Ambassador to Ankara, he reminded me that Turkey faced a similar conundrum because its leaders were caught in a contradictory dilemma: "reform in preparation for accession to the European Union or adopt more rigid visions of Ottomanism
that also looked back".
Lebanism thus became a complement to other powerful currents, such as Ottomanism
, Arabism, and Syrianism, which correspondingly sought to influence the fate of Ottoman reform.
Yet as Davutoglu insists, this approach to the region should not be considered a subtle revival of Ottomanism
as a hegemonic project, an undertaking sometimes labeled "neo-Ottomanism
His history focuses on three main issues: the tensions between the Ottoman's efforts to rule Yemen through Western-style colonial domination and efforts at building a more homogenous and centralized empire under the imperial patriotism of Ottomanism
, the ways in which Ottoman policy makers sought to govern Yemen according to the "customs and dispositions" of the local population and through local intermediaries, and struggles from the local level to the imperial level over categories and knowledge that informed and structured the ways in which imperial rule was deployed.
More recently, during a meeting with a delegation representing Christian associations in the Middle East, Assad said, according to several news outlets, that he "refused that Ottomanism
would replace Arabism, or that Ankara would become the decision-making center of the Arab world.
as the new ideology proved inadequate in preventing the dissolution of the empire.
It remains difficult to market that description in countries formerly controlled by the Ottoman Empire due to continued indoctrination against Ottomanism
by the Arabs over nine decades.
The intelligentsia were aware that there was a Kurdish question, but this question was understood as an internal part of the Ottoman whole and its solution was sought within the political boundaries of Ottomanism
A PhD lectured on "The Ottomanism
of the Young Turks" and then it was off on a campus tour.
Cleveland, The Making of an Arab Nationalist: Ottomanism
and Arabism in the Life and Thought of Sati' al-Husri (Princeton: Princeton Univ.
This process went on in parallel to a shift from historic Ottomanism
to the new Turkish nationalism.
Again the role of the Maronites in Lebanon has been relevant, as in the case of Emir Shakib Arslan, one of the major leaders of Ottomanism
at the beginning of the twentieth century.