In collaboration with Afghani, Abdul Hameed II used Pan-Islamism as an effective tool for the spread of Ottomanism
as the sole representative of Muslim unity in the late 19th century.
The Bedirkhanis embodied the Ottoman modernization project by embracing Ottoman nationalism, known as Ottomanism
. This newly cohesive and inclusive sense of Ottoman citizenship was based on the equality of all Ottomans regardless of their ethnic and religious origins.
Foreign Policy also describes Ottomanism
, Islamism, suspicion of Western political intervention in the Middle East, the rejection of Kemalism, and confinement of the democratic process and elections as key attributes of Erdoganism.
Therefore, the fact that Mahmud Pasa Angelovic, the convert to Islam and to Ottomanism
, would later in life excel also as an Ottoman poet, speaks volumes about his identity.
There has been a revival of 'soft' Ottomanism
, from the ornamental ewers, encrusted mirrors, and chased Ottoman candlesticks produced by the home-decoration giant Pasabahce, to the introduction of Ottoman specialities such as almond and nutmeg soup on to restaurant menus.
Paraphrasing Hanioglu, this renewal raised a double-bind generation: keeping the sultan, while introducing the committee; maintaining the Islamic identity of the regime, yet endorsing secularism; espousing Turkism, yet professing Ottomanism
; advocating democracy, but practicing repression; attacking imperialism, while courting empires; and proclaiming etatisme while promoting liberal economics (A Brief History 202).
In Greece thee statements were seen as dangerous and provocative and some even saw them as a reflection of Erdogan's neo- Ottomanism
. Minister Kotzias made a harsh statement about the Chams and Erdogan and apparently they wish to send a message that Erdogan's statements are not intended only for the domestic nationalist circles in Turkey.
Sahin places Mustafa within the framework of a more general "Eurasian expansion in bureaucratic action" (5) and Ottoman society (and politics) in the framework of early modern Eurasia, thus minimizing the restrictions imposed by Eurocentrism and Ottomanism
that have long caused the Ottoman case to be considered as unique and in isolation from otherwise "global" phenomena.
If the "Arab Awakening" marked the transition from Ottomanism
to Arabism in the early 20th century, the return of political Islam marked post-1967 Arab politics.
To survive this wave of nationalism and protect its borders, in the 19th century the concept of Ottomanism
Chapter 3 focuses on citizenship, which developed in the Ottoman Empire as a component of "official nationalism" or the imperial ideology of Ottomanism
in the late nineteenth century.