Ottomanism


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Ottomanism

 

(Osmanism), a political doctrine of the Ottoman Empire.

Ottomanism, advanced by the Young Turks at the end of the 19th century, orginally proclaimed “the equality of all Ottomans,” that is, of all subjects of the Ottoman Empire irrespective of their nationality and religion. But later, especially after the Young Turks came to power in 1908, it became an implement in their struggle against the national demands of the empire’s non-Turkish peoples; it was the ideological basis of the group’s assertion that these peoples must be assimilated so that a “single Ottoman nation” might be created. The growth of the national liberation movement among the empire’s non-Turkish peoples, as well as the Tripolitan War (the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–12) and the Balkan Wars of 1912–13, demonstrated Ottomanism’s inability to preserve an integral Ottoman Empire. The doctrine yielded to Pan-Islamism, revived by the Young Turks, and to Pan-Turkism.

References in periodicals archive ?
In collaboration with Afghani, Abdul Hameed II used Pan-Islamism as an effective tool for the spread of Ottomanism as the sole representative of Muslim unity in the late 19th century.
The Bedirkhanis embodied the Ottoman modernization project by embracing Ottoman nationalism, known as Ottomanism. This newly cohesive and inclusive sense of Ottoman citizenship was based on the equality of all Ottomans regardless of their ethnic and religious origins.
Foreign Policy also describes Ottomanism, Islamism, suspicion of Western political intervention in the Middle East, the rejection of Kemalism, and confinement of the democratic process and elections as key attributes of Erdoganism.
Therefore, the fact that Mahmud Pasa Angelovic, the convert to Islam and to Ottomanism, would later in life excel also as an Ottoman poet, speaks volumes about his identity.
There has been a revival of 'soft' Ottomanism, from the ornamental ewers, encrusted mirrors, and chased Ottoman candlesticks produced by the home-decoration giant Pasabahce, to the introduction of Ottoman specialities such as almond and nutmeg soup on to restaurant menus.
Paraphrasing Hanioglu, this renewal raised a double-bind generation: keeping the sultan, while introducing the committee; maintaining the Islamic identity of the regime, yet endorsing secularism; espousing Turkism, yet professing Ottomanism; advocating democracy, but practicing repression; attacking imperialism, while courting empires; and proclaiming etatisme while promoting liberal economics (A Brief History 202).
In Greece thee statements were seen as dangerous and provocative and some even saw them as a reflection of Erdogan's neo- Ottomanism. Minister Kotzias made a harsh statement about the Chams and Erdogan and apparently they wish to send a message that Erdogan's statements are not intended only for the domestic nationalist circles in Turkey.
Sahin places Mustafa within the framework of a more general "Eurasian expansion in bureaucratic action" (5) and Ottoman society (and politics) in the framework of early modern Eurasia, thus minimizing the restrictions imposed by Eurocentrism and Ottomanism that have long caused the Ottoman case to be considered as unique and in isolation from otherwise "global" phenomena.
If the "Arab Awakening" marked the transition from Ottomanism to Arabism in the early 20th century, the return of political Islam marked post-1967 Arab politics.
To survive this wave of nationalism and protect its borders, in the 19th century the concept of Ottomanism was developed.
Chapter 3 focuses on citizenship, which developed in the Ottoman Empire as a component of "official nationalism" or the imperial ideology of Ottomanism in the late nineteenth century.