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(in Russian, autsaidery), capitalist enterprises and companies that for various reasons are not part of the monopolistic associations that have formed in their branch of activity. Outsiders are sometimes large enterprises and companies only slightly less economically powerful than the monopolies; at the same time, the category of outsiders also includes small and medium-sized enterprises. Some outsiders have a relatively secure market and can, to a certain degree, compete with the monopolies because of specific characteristics of the technology, the nature of the demand, and other circumstances. Monopolistic associations wage fierce competitive struggles against outsiders, resorting to methods such as depriving them of raw materials, transport, labor power, markets, and credit; planned lowering of prices; cornering shares or patents; bribing; or even using force directly. Under present conditions, the independence of most outsiders is purely external. Monopolies turn a sizable portion of small and medium-sized outsiders into subcontractors working on special orders. During periods of favorable conditions, new outsider enterprises are established in a number of branches, leading to intensified competition.
V. I. PANTELEEV