Ovid

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Ovid

(Publius Ovidius Naso) (ŏv`ĭd), 43 B.C.–A.D. 18, Latin poet, b. Sulmo (present-day Sulmona), in the Apennines. Although trained for the law, he preferred the company of the literary coterie at Rome. He enjoyed early and widespread fame as a poet and was known to the emperor Augustus. In A.D. 8, for no known reason, he was abruptly exiled to Tomis, a Black Sea outpost, S of the Danube, where he later died. The poems of Ovid fall into three groups—erotic poems, mythological poems, and poems of exile. His verse, with the exception of the Metamorphoses and a fragment (Halieutica), is in elegiacs, which are of unmatched perfection. The love poems include Amores [loves], 49 short poems, many of which extol the charms of the poet's mistress Corinna, probably a synthesis of several women; Epistulae heroidum [letters from heroines], an imaginary series written by ancient heroines to their absent lovers; Ars amatoria [art of love], didactic, in three books, with complete instructions on how to acquire and keep a lover. In the mythological category is the Metamorphoses, a masterpiece and perhaps Ovid's greatest work. Written in hexameters, it is a collection of myths concerned with miraculous transformations linked together with such consummate skill that the whole is artistically harmonious. The Fasti, also a mythological poem, contains six books on the days of the year from January to June, giving the myths, legends, and notable events called to mind on each day. As a source for religious antiquities, it is especially valuable. The poems of exile include Tristia [sorrows], five books of short poems, conveying the poet's despair in his first five years of exile and his supplications for mercy, and the Epistulae ex Ponto [letters from the Black Sea], in four books, addressed to friends in Rome, showing somewhat abated poetic power. Ovid wrote poetry to give pleasure; no other Latin poet wrote so naturally in verse or with such sustained wit. Unsurpassed as a storyteller, he also related the complexities of romantic involvements with verve and deft characterization. A major influence in European literature, Ovid was also a primary source of inspiration for the artists of the Renaissance and the baroque. The Metamorphoses was translated during this period by A. Golding (1567), George Sandys (1632), and John Dryden (1700).

Bibliography

See modern verse translations by R. Humphries (1955, 1958), L. R. Lind (1975), and A. D. Melville (1989); studies by L. P. Wilkinson (1955, 1962), H. F. Fränkel (1945, repr. 1969), B. Otis (1966, repr. 1971), J. W. Binns, ed. (1973), R. Syme (1978), D. R. Slavitt (1990).

Ovid

 

(Publius Ovidius Naso). Born 43 B.C.; died circa A.D. 18. Roman poet.

Writing individualistic, primarily erotic, poetry, Ovid in his early narrative poems Ars Amatoria (Art of Love) and Remedia Amoris (Remedies of Love) instructs the reader in amorous relations and describes scenes from Roman life. His poem Metamorphoses (Russian translation, 1874–76) marked a transition to large-scale works in the spirit of Hellenistic “learned” poetry. Conceived as an epic, it contains about 250 mythological and folkloric tales about the transformation of people into animals, plants, constellations, and even into stones. His last works were the Tristia (Sorrows) and the Epistulae ex Ponto (Pontic Epistles).

At the end of A.D. 8, Ovid was exiled by Augustus to Tomis (now the port of Constanţa in Rumania), where he died. During his exile, he created a new genre of Roman poetry—the subjective elegy, devoid of any amatory theme. Ovid was highly esteemed by A. S. Pushkin, whose interest in the exiled poet was expressed in the verses “In the Land Where He Was Crowned by Julia” and “To Ovid” and in the narrative poem The Gypsies.

WORKS

Opera, vols. 1–3. Edited by R. Ehwald and V. Levy. Leipzig, 1915–32.
Carmina selecta. Moscow, 1946.
In Russian translation:
Ballady-poslaniia. Moscow, 1913.
Metamorfozy. (Introductory article by A. Beletskii.) [Moscow] 1937.
Liubovnye elegii. (Introduced and translated by S. Shervinskii.) Moscow, 1963.
Elegii i malye poemy. Moscow, 1973.

REFERENCES

Tronskii, I. M. Istoriia antichnoi literatury, 3rd ed. Leningrad, 1957.
Istoriia rimskoi literatury, vol. 1. Moscow, 1959.
Fräncel, H. Ovid: A Poet Between Two Worlds. Berkeley, Calif., 1945.
Paratore, E. Bibliografia Ovidiana. Sulmona. 1958.

K. P. POLONSKAIA

Ovid

(dreams)

Ovid (43 B.C.E.–17 C.E.) was a postclassical poet of the Roman Empire. He is renowned for his ability to meld the reality of the waking world with dream-like elements in his prose and poetry. Depending on the source, scholars refer to Ovid as being either the last of the poets of the golden age, or the first of the poets of the silver age. He was banished to the city of Tomis in 11 C.E. for unknown reasons.

In a letter written during his exile, he described the agony that refused to leave him, even while asleep, and the suppressed wishes that made themselves known in his nightmares. In his great work Metamorphoses, he devotes a section to the description of the “Dream of Erysichthon.” Erysichthon is cursed, doomed to starve no matter what he eats or how much. In the end, it causes him to devour the entire world, and this is followed by the rendering of his own flesh. Ovid compares Erysichthon to Fames, who is a living corpse surviving on a minimal diet. The incorporation of these nightmarish elements in Ovid’s morose poetry exemplifies the irony that characterizes these events.

Ovid

(Publius Ovidius Naso, 43 B.C.—A.D. 17) great storyteller of classical mythology. [Rom. Lit.: Zimmerman, 187]

Ovid

Latin name Publius Ovidius Naso. 43 bc--?17 ad, Roman poet. His verse includes poems on love, Ars Amatoria, on myths, Metamorphoses, and on his sufferings in exile, Tristia
References in periodicals archive ?
8) And, in ways that proved vital for artists, the Metamorphoses' compendiousness encouraged scholars and translators from the 12th century onwards to create a gamut of Ovidian epitomes and expansions.
Instead, it covered material from more than one related Ovidian myth in a way which makes it seem more like Thomas Heywood's Ages plays, performed at the Red Bull around 1609-13, which handle several myths in a play.
In particular, he finds that Marlowe perceived an intense physicality in Ovid's Amores which is reflected in Hero and Leander, and which reveals the poem as originally published (without sestiads, without a tragic ending, and without Tucker Brooke's emendation of the line order near the end) reflects Marlowe's Ovidian vision.
Furthermore, by having Tamburlaine echo the effeminate Ovidian and Petrarchan poet-lovers, Marlowe joins Tamburlaine to the feeble poets.
The series of Ovidian self-identifications in the quatrains presents a conflicting portrait of the relationship between Petrarch and Laura.
For instance, in "Rappaccini's Daughter," Greven apprehends Giovanni's narcissism in light of the Vertumnus myth, the Ovidian Narcissus myth, the Bible, and Milton.
Lope de Vega (El amor enamorado) and Calderon de la Barca (El laurel de Apolo) also use the Ovidian tale of Apollo and Dafne to praise themselves and to give cautionary advice to the king in their respective court plays.
In his Complaynt, for instance, Lydgate offers nothing that corresponds with the Ovidian episode, or with the larger frame narrative in which it occurs.
Such authority, however, is always precarious, for the Ovidian undercurrents in the Familiares and the Secretum betray the same ambiguity and anxiety about writing and desire encountered in the Canzoniere.
In activating the play's principal Ovidian intertext, the Medea-Theseus narrative of the Metamorphoses, Hippolytus's allusions to Medea set in motion a sequence of ominous errors or Ovidian misreadings which will ultimately prove fatal for both Hippolytus and Phaedra.
Similarly, spring imagery provides a primary key to the Ovidian subtext in Sanctuary.
98 a culpa facinus scitis abesse mea provides some kind of parallel, but there as in the other Ovidian cases of the metaphorical use of abesse .