The integration of members from the central plateaux (Ovimbundu
) was harder and remained that way after independence and until the death of UNITA's leader--Savimbi (Vidal, 2002; Mabeko-Tali, 1996).
She maintains that over the next nine decades the Ovimbundu
consistently sought a new identity, in opposition to one the state authorities sought to impose.
Other ethnic groups, including the majority Ovimbundu
, have no more than token access to power or wealth.
(51) No one in the documents consulted was identified as Ovimbundu
, an ethnonym employed by anthropologists in the twentieth century to designate people living in the Benguela interior, including the Ndombe.
O conjunto desses problemas acabou por deslocar os apresamentos de cativos para o planalto de Bihe, terra dos Ovimbundu
, e o trafico para a cidade de Sao Filipe de Benguela, fundada no seculo XVII.
Thousands of Ovimbundu
and Bakongo people were killed by government troops, and later UNITA began purging populations thought to be supportive of the MPLA.
Joseph Miller (1995: 128) aponta que essa mudanca fundamental na vida social e politica lunda atingiu a maior parte do resto da Africa central ocidental: "A aceitacao das instituicoes politicas centralizadas dos Luba provocou uma emigracao de linhagens Lunda e uma difusao de titulos Lunda que, numa fase inicial, se estenderam para oeste ate os Cokwe e para o sul ate aos Lwena e, mais tarde, se espalharam para os Mbundu e os Ovimbundu
The most common response to the first is that the situation in Angola was bound to be difficult to resolve because of the historical division of the country between the three main ethnic constituencies (Bakongo, Kimbundu and Ovimbundu
(18) This has, in part, been based on an ethnic basis for UNITA, the MPLA, and FNLA; respectively comprised of Ovimbundu
, Mbundu, and Bakongo peoples, who together account for three-quarters of the total population of Angola.
While the focus is specifically on the Chokwe peoples, arguably the most famous and vital of Angola's ethnic groups, neighbouring groups within that country and in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia - such as the Lwena/Luvale, Ovimbundu
, Luchazi, Holo and Lunda - are also included.
By encouraging colonists to settle in the Ovimbundu
(Mbundu) territory, he forced the dealers of that kingdom to scout ever farther toward the south and east, becoming more distant from Luanda and compelling them to sell to Benguela.
He undeniably has a wide following in Angola, though mostly among his own Ovimbundu
ethnic group, and he is competent, needing no guidance or instruction books from the Central Intelligence Agency.