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the second stage from the bottom of the Upper Jurassic system. It was identified by the French paleontologist A. D. d’Orbigny in 1842. A typical cross section is composed of clays, giving way to oolitic and coral limestone (coral strata) in the upper part of the stage. It is subdivided into two substages and three zones. Oxfordian marine deposits are widely found in the USSR and Western Europe. They are represented by clayey rocks in platform regions and by carbonate and reef formations in geosynclinal areas, such as the Caucasus, Crimea, Carpathians, and Alps.