Oxidoreductases


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Related to Oxidoreductases: Hydrolases, Transferases

Oxidoreductases

 

the class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions. Oxidoreductases are present in all living cells. The oxidized substrates that oxidoreductases act on can be a hydroxyl group (—OH), aldehyde group (—CHO), ketone group (> CO), or ethyl group (—CH2—CH2—). This class of enzymes also acts on reduced forms of pyridine coenzymes, for example, nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Among the substances that are reduced in an oxidoreductase reaction, that is, among those that serve as acceptors of hydrogen and electrons, are NAD, NADP, cytochromes, lipoic acid, and quinones. The most important oxidoreductases include dehydrogenases, which transfer hydrogen and electrons during respiration and photosynthesis; oxidases, with the oxidizing agent O2; peroxidases, with the oxidizing agent H2O2; hydroxylases, which incorporate one atom of O2 into a molecule of substrate; and oxygenases, which incorporate two atoms of O2 into a molecule of substrate. More than 200 oxidoreductases are known.

References in periodicals archive ?
Statistical analysis of contribution of the observed variations factors [[eta].sub.2] proved that to the highest degree, the abundance of microorganisms and activity of oxidoreductases depended on contamination of the soil with zinc (Table 1).
Adams, "Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, a novel tungsten-containing enzyme with a potential glycolytic role in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus" The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Effect on the Activity of Some Enzymes from the Class of Oxidoreductases. Research on dietary polyphenols has intensified over the past decade, mainly due to the direct radical scavenging properties of many such compounds.
desulfuricans a thioredoxin reductase MreD has been shown to be involved in NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of U(VI) and Cr(VI) in association with thioredoxin and possibly an oxidoreductase protein MreG [23].
After attaining peak parasitaemia several changes were observed in histological scanning electron microscopic, biochemical and histochemical analysis of hydrolases in malaria infected monkey placenta (15-18) while some of the oxidoreductases were localised as follows:
chilensis only presented strong enzymatic activity for a pyruvate oxidoreductase, the alanopine dehydrogenase (ALPDH).
It is produced enzymatically from 1-arginine by the nitric oxide synthase family of oxidoreductases [2].
The chapter on maize biochemistry briefly discusses basic enzymology, including key enzymes associated with photosynthesis, oxidoreductases, synthetases, hydrolases, and transferases.
These enzymes are grouped into six classes: hydrolases (including proteases, amylases and lipases that break down the main nutrients - fats, carbohydrates and proteins), isomerases, ligases, lyases, oxidoreductases and transferases.
Oxidoreductase. Oxidoreductases catalyze the transfer of electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors, and many of them have been identified as potential sources of superoxide anions in mammalian cells [187].
Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes with a very high potential for preparative organic synthesis, which is why they are increasingly used also on industrial scale.