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Oyotunji (South Carolina)

(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Oyotunji Village, a traditional West African Yoruba village, was founded in Beaufort County, South Carolina, in 1970 by Adefunmi I, who leads it as both king and priest. Since its existence became public knowledge in the early 1970s, it has become one of the major pilgrimage sites for African Americans seeking to learn about their heritage.

The man now known as Oba Ofuntola Oseije-man Adelabu Adefunmi was born in 1928 as Walter Eugene King. Raised a Baptist, he abandoned the faith of his childhood in 1950 and went on a quest for his African roots. An early step in his spiritual quest was a trip to Haiti, where he discovered voudou first hand. In 1955, in Brooklyn, New York, he founded the Order of Damballah Hwedo Ancestor Priests. Damballah is one of the primary deities acknowledged in voudou, and veneration of one’s ancestors is a major practice. In 1959 the world of Santeria, a version of the magical religion brought from West Africa by slaves in previous centuries, was opened to him in Cuba, and the Order of Damballah subsequently evolved into the Shango Temple. The members aspired to a recovery of what they saw as their Nigerian ancestral ways. As the temple continued to evolve, including the founding of an educational arm and the African Theological Archministry, the group aspired to a new lineage of Orisa (deity) worship that placed Nigeria at its core, but was still relevant to modern African Americans. In the mid-1960s, word reach Nigeria of what Adefunmi was attempting, and Ooni Adesoji Aderemi, a Yoruban priest, traveled from Africa to see what was occurring. This eventually led, in 1972, to Adefunmi’s ordination into the Yoruban priesthood by the Oluwa (King) of Ijeun at Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Meanwhile, back in South Carolina, the members of the African Theological Archministry built a replica of a Nigerian village. It included a central house for King Adefunmi and his wives. It also housed a staging area for the rites appropriate to the various African deities. Before noon each day, only Yoruban is spoken, so most tourists arrive in the afternoon for their visit. They are welcomed as if they were entering another country and introduced to the behavior proper to the foreign environment.

The number of full-time residents at Oyotunji remains small at about 50 people (one must learn Yoruban to function), but it has become the center of a revival of African religion within the African American community. There are some 10,000 affiliated members across the United States.


Brown, David H. Santeria Enthroned: Art, Ritual, and Innovation in an Afro-Cuban Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
Eason, Djisovi Ikukomi. “A Time of Destiny”: Ifa Culture and Festivals in Ile-Ife, Nigeria and Oyotunji African Village in Sheldon, South Carolina. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1997.
Hunt, Carl M. Oyotunji Village. Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1979.
The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena © 2008 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Alase of Oyotunji Village, a traditional Yoruba settlement in South Carolina, USA, and Oba Adefunmi Adejugbe has called on Yoruba all over the globe to join hands with him in rebuilding this sacred part of Oyotunji village which was consumed by the fire.
Oyotunji village is named after the Oyo Empire, and the name literally means 'Oyo returns' or 'Oyo rises again'.
Oyotunji Village has been a pride of the Yoruba both at home and in Diaspora because it has over the years replicated and reincarnated the pristine Yoruba culture, values, mores, norms, ethics, and belief and has been a potent tourism site in South Carolina.
Examining Godfrey Cheshire's documentary Moving Midway that chronicles the relocation of a home at Midway Plantation in North Carolina, Civil War reenactments in Georgia and South Carolina, as well as the Oyotunji Village in Sheldon.
I kept coming back to Commander's admonition against unchecked speculation and the attempts to re-appropriate or possess Africa in places like the Oyotunji Village that potentially threaten the revolutionary work taking place in such speculative acts.
Thus, African names were ripe, as most of the leadership from the above organizations had also by the 1970s demonstrated: e.g., the Oyotunji Village was founded in 1970 in Beaufort County in South Carolina, African Libration Day was headed by Owusu Sadaukai of Malcolm X Liberation University; the Congress of African People (Baraka 1997, Simanga 2015) was led by Amiri Baraka (1934-2014); the Pan African People's Organization in San Francisco, California head was Oba T'Shaka (T'Shaka 2005); Maulana Karenga had founded the Organization Us; Imari A.
Three papers describe the fascinating history and unique ritual practice of the neo-Yoruba community in North Carolina, the Oyotunji village.
"Oyotunji Village and other Black Amerikkkan Re-connection Attempts to African Traditions: An Analysis of the Survival and Resurgance of the Yoruba in the Americans." Graduate Paper.
Members of Oyotunji believe they are descended from African nobility and are legitimate heirs to the Oyo (a region in southwestern Nigeria) Empire, thus this supports their ideology for a revivalist community in the United States.
Members of Oyotunji who have visited Nigeria are quick to claim that due to the power and influence of colonialism and Christianity their African compatriots have "whitened" their practices and are no longer authentic Yoruba.
His intent to uncover this undiluted religion leads him to Oyotunji, in South Carolina, and offers him his most sustained interaction with practitioners of African religious traditions.
At the time of the pamphlet's authorship she was the chief priestess of the Obatala Temple at the Oyotunji Village in Sheldon, South Carolina, and was in charge of the Priest College (which trains the divinity priests), as well as headmistress of the Yoruba Royal Academy there.