Montreal Protocol

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Montreal Protocol,

officially the Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, treaty signed on Sept. 16, 1987, at Montreal by 25 nations; 197 nations are now parties to the accord. The protocol set limits on the production of chlorofluorocarbonschlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs), organic compounds that contain carbon, chlorine, and fluorine atoms. CFCs are highly effective refrigerants that were developed in response to the pressing need to eliminate toxic and flammable substances, such as sulfur dioxide and ammonia, in
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 (CFCs), halons, and related substances that release chlorine or bromine to the ozone layerozone layer
or ozonosphere,
region of the stratosphere containing relatively high concentrations of ozone, located at altitudes of 12–30 mi (19–48 km) above the earth's surface.
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 of the atmosphere. On the basis of increasing scientific knowledge about the effects of CFCs and halons on the ozone layer, the original protocol has been amended several times. At subsequent meetings of the signatories to the protocol amendments have been adopted that were designed to speed up the phasing out of or control ozone-depleting substances and aid developing countries in complying; not all parties to the main protocol are parties to these amendments. The production and consumption of halons was phased out by Jan. 1, 1994, and of CFCs, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and hydrobromofluorocarbons by Jan. 1, 1996, subject to an exception for agreed essential users. Methyl bromide was to be phased out by 2005 but a number of users of the chemical won temporary exceptions from the ban, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons are to be phased out by 2020. (Phaseout dates were set later for developing countries.)

Under the protocol, the ozone-depleting potential, or ODP, of any substance is measured with respect to an equal mass of CCl3F, or CFC-11, which is assigned a value of 1.0. Most other CFCs have ODPs that range from about 0.5 to about 1.3. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons, which are being used as transitional replacements (until 2020) for CFCs in refrigeration, have ODPs that are generally less than 0.5. Hydrofluorocarbons, which are also replacing CFCs as refrigerants, have ODPs of zero but are greenhouse gases. Ozone-depleting potentials are based on existing scientific knowledge and are to be reviewed and revised periodically.

Bibliography

See D. E. Newton, The Ozone Dilemma (1995).

References in periodicals archive ?
membership in the ozone layer protection agreements, was classified
The Sultanate, having accepted its membership in the ozone layer protection agreements, was classified as a Party of Article 5 of the Montreal Protocol.
It is planned to hold seminars to improve the competencies of secondary school teachers, universities, vocational schools in the field of sustainable development, ozone layer protection, climate change.
The theme of this International Ozone Day was Ozone Layer Protection: The Mission Goes On".
In accordance with the theme for this year's celebration "Ozone Layer Protection: The Mission Goes On," Head of the national committee for the ozone protection at EPA Ayman Bojbarah said that individuals and companies using ozone depleting substances should try to limit their use to make further progress in positive steps that have been taking by the state of Kuwait to protect the ozone layer from damage.
HCFCs phase out helps ozone layer protection as well as climate change, but more than that it helps the economy.
The first and second national programs on ozone layer protection were implemented in Kyrgyzstan in the framework of the Montreal Protocol and Vienna Convention, said Head of Ozone Center in Bishkek Mars Amanaliev today at the briefing entitled "2010 - year of ceased use of chlorofluorocarbons in Kyrgyzstan".The Ozone Center specialists say it is necessary to raise public awareness about problems of depletion of the ozone layer.
Stronger Ozone Layer Protection May Reduce Cataract Incidence
All states are now parties to the ozone layer protection rules.
Carolina Congressman David Price (r) visited Arysta Life Sciences headquarters in Cary, NC, to congratulate the company's NA Pres Bill Lewis and staff on its EPA Ozone Layer Protection Award for its MIDAS fumigant.
The Commission points out that European Union legislation in the areas of air quality, climate change and ozone layer protection seeks to achieve the following goals: reduction of sulphur dioxide emissions by imposing restrictions on the sulphur content of certain fuels; and annual information on CO2 emissions and CO2 sequestration (storage).