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(pä`trā) or


(pəträs`, păt`rəs), Lat. Patrae, city (1991 pop. 153,344), capital of Akhaía prefecture, central Greece, in the Peloponnesus. It is a port on the Gulf of Pátrai, which connects the Gulf of Corinth with the Ionian Sea. Pátrai is a commercial, industrial, and transportation center that ships currants, tobacco, wine, olive oil, and sheepskins. There is paper and textile manufacturing. A university is there. The nearby Charilaos Trikoupis, or Rio–Antirrio, Bridge connects the peninusula with the mainland.

The city was allied with Athens in the Peloponnesian WarPeloponnesian War
, 431–404 B.C., decisive struggle in ancient Greece between Athens and Sparta. It ruined Athens, at least for a time. The rivalry between Athens' maritime domain and Sparta's land empire was of long standing. Athens under Pericles (from 445 B.C.
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 and became (3d cent. B.C.) a leading member of the Second Achaean LeagueAchaean League
, confederation of cities on the Gulf of Corinth. The First Achaean League, about which little is known, was formed presumably before the 5th cent. B.C. and lasted through the 4th cent. B.C. Its purpose was mutual protection against pirates.
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. It led a revolt against the Macedonians in 218 B.C. but sank into insignificance before the Roman conquest (146 B.C.) of Greece; it was revived (late 1st cent. B.C.) as a Roman military colony by Augustus and soon flourished as a port.

Pátrai was conquered by the French nobleman Geoffroi I de Villehardouin in 1205 and was included in the Latin principality of Achaia. The city was captured by the Ottoman Turks in 1458, passed to Venice in 1687, and was retaken by the Turks in 1715. It was destroyed (1821) in the Greek War of Independence and was rebuilt on a rectangular pattern by Count Capo d'Istria in 1829.

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Patras), a city in Greece in the Peloponnesus; a port on the Gulf of Patrai of the Ionian Sea. Capital of the Nome of Achaea. Population, 111, 600 (1971).

Patrai has a railroad station and an airport. It has textile, food-processing, paper, footwear, chemical, and metalworking industries. Exports include currants, oranges, lemons, olive oil, and wine. A university was founded in Patrai in 1966. [19–84l–4]

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.