The patients with PNES receiving or not receiving antiepileptic drug therapy were assessed in terms of effects in the basal cognitive tests (Figure 2).
The total HRSD scores of both patients with epilepsy and those with PNES were significantly higher compared with those of the controls (p=0.
Concerning paediatric patients, some authors supposed a lower risk of PNES for children than adults (27), but this may represent underdiagnosis because of the limited number of studies on this population.
PNES should be suspected whenever EEG is repeatedly normal, the attacks are frequent despite appropriate medical management, have atypical clinical features, and are exacerbated by stress.
They believe these findings are significant as it is expected that the PNES patients taking antidepressant medications would have an increased level of serum BDNF.
There were no significant differences in the levels of serum BDNF among all the patients in the PNES group, whether they were taking antidepressants or not.
Modified from a CBT for patients with epilepsy workbook, the treatment manual has been developed over the past five years to address core issues in patients with PNES.
LaFrance, who is also an assistant professor of psychiatry and neurology (research) at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, worked with colleagues at Rhode Island Hospital's comprehensive epilepsy center to conduct an open, prospective clinical trial assessing the outcomes of outpatients with video-electroencephalogram (EEG)-confirmed PNES who were treated using the CBT for PNES manual.