Aro, "Insights into the function of PsbR
protein in Arabidopsis thaliana," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)--Bioenergetics, vol.
Additional consolidation worth 0.2pp of GDP is needed to reach next year's PSBR
target, according to the Finance Ministry's revenue and spending assumptions.
Manmohan Singh as the finance minister came to power in 1991, the country was essentially bankrupt, with foreign exchange reserves barely sufficient to finance 10 days of imports, galloping inflation (by Indian standards) of 14 percent, a PSBR
of nearly 12 percent, and an impending growth collapse.
Consequently, the financing of the PSBR
relied exclusively on issues of government debt instruments to the internal market--especially to the banking sector.
Galbraith said borrowing would not be cheaper if it was done outside the PSBR
The EFL is a government restriction that limits the demands public-sector organisations can make on the public-sector borrowing requirement (PSBR
Looking back to our Fiscal Report written in April 1997, based on the assumption that a Labour government would be elected in May, we were forecasting that the public sector borrowing requirement (PSBR
) would fall from 3.5 per cent of GDP in 1996-7 to 0.7 per cent of GDP in 1999-2000.
Standing in the way of this is the current measure of government borrowing, the Public Sector Borrowing Rate (PSBR
), which treats council borrowing for investment as if it were government debt.
The initiative has been slow to develop despite pressure from governments (anxious to limit the PSBR
) and several revamps to facilitate the PFI approach.
These included references to the general state of the economy (features like growth, production and investment) as well as inflation/prices, tax, jobs, sales, living standards, wages, the balance of payment, interest rate fluctuations, PSBR
, and the state of the housing market and house prices.
(1993), "Low inflation fosters long-dated attitudes - several countries have pushed their PSBR
to the limit without obvious success.
These shortfalls, financed by the state, accounted for nearly a third of Turkey's estimated 1996 public sector borrowing requirement (PSBR