cardiac pacemaker

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cardiac pacemaker

[′kärd·ē‚ak ′pā‚smā·kər]
(medicine)
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Using minimally invasive gene therapy, a patients' normal heart cells can be turned into pacemaker cells that regulate heart function--potentially replacing electronic pacemakers one day.
The question to be raised is how the renewal of a piece of myocardium follows the time line of picking up cell types in series: cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, fibroblast, pacemaker cells, conducting and Purkinje cells to bring the orchestration of rhythmically contracting and relaxing heart.
The researchers from the McEwen Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University Health Network, describe how human pluripotent stem cells can be coaxed in 21 days to develop into pacemaker cells, which regulate heart beats with electrical impulses.
Eugenio Cingolani, MD, the director of the Heart Institute's Cardiogenetics-Familial Arrhythmia Clinic, said that in the future, pacemaker cells also could help infants born with congenital heart block.
In cardiac muscle, however, the increased cellular Ca concentration does not greatly exceed the on-off trigger level of 1 uM, and it always remains around this level despite the all-or-none nature of electrical signals given by pacemaker cells, although the reason behind this is unclear.
Ordinary heart cells have been reprogrammed by researchers to become exact replicas of highly specialized pacemaker cells by injecting a single gene (Tbx18)--a major step forward in the decade-long search for a biological therapy to correct erratic and failing heartbeats.
These cells have gap junctions with smooth muscle cells which give way to nerve terminals; these these cells are called pacemaker cells.
Idiopathic gastric perforation in neonates and abnormal distribution of intestinal pacemaker cells.
GISTs are now thought to arise from stem cells related to interstitial cells of Cajal which are the pacemaker cells of the gut, associated with Auerbach's plexus.
The heart has 10 billion cells but fewer than 10,000 of them are pacemaker cells, which generate electrical activity that spreads to other cardiac cells, making the organ contract rhythmically and pump blood.
The stimulant de-activates specialised pacemaker cells in the walls of the tubes.