Pachacamac


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Pachacamac

(pä'chäkämäk`), ruins of a walled Native American settlement, Peru, about 25 mi (40 km) SE of Lima in the Lurin Valley. This site, which contains a number of pyramids, was considered one of the most important religious monuments by the indigenous people of the central Andes. Spanish historical records, along with extensive archaeological research at the site, have served to clarify its history and significance. By the Early Intermediate period (c.A.D. 200–600) this site contained at least one pyramid, a cemetery, and a polychrome fresco of fish. The Huari Empire, based in the south central highlands of Peru during the period A.D. 600–800, gained hegemony over the central coast of Peru and sponsored construction at Pachacamac, probably turning it into a major Huari administrative center. Numerous Huari-influenced designs appear on the ceramics and textiles of this site's large cemetery. After Huari's collapse, Pachacamac grew in size, eventually covering c.210 acres (85 hectares). During this late phase (c.800–1450), the majority of its architectural compounds and pyramids were constructed. The primary architectural unit is the walled enclosure containing a stepped pyramid, storage structures, and patios. The site is organized around two perpendicular avenues, aligned with the cardinal directions, which cross one another at the center of the site. Historical sources indicate that in the 15th cent., the Rimac and Lurin valleys formed a small polity known as the Ichma, which established an alliance with the Inca. Following the expansion of the Inca empire, Pachacamac became an important Inca administrative center, while maintaining its status as a religious shrine. The Inca built five separate complexes there, including the Pyramid of the Sun and the Mamacuna. The latter contains fine Inca masonry in its entrance gate, a rarity on the coast. The Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro heard about Pachacamac from the Inca, while holding the Inca King Atahualpa prisoner at Cajamarca in 1532. He promptly sent an expedition to sack the center. The Spanish conquerors seized a large amount of silver and gold from the site and destroyed an idol. Spanish accounts indicate Pachacamac was one of the holiest shrines in the central Andes. The site's name derives from the Quechua term for the coastal deity, Pacha Camac [he who vitalizes the universe]. The main temple at the site was dedicated to this deity and held a famous oracle. Pilgrims traveled to the center from great distances, and its cemetery was considered sacrosanct. The site of Pachacamac has been preserved, and one of the Inca structures, the Mamacuna, has been reconstructed.
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Inkas e Yshmas en Pachacamac, Chungara, Revista de Antropologia Chilena, 36(2):495-503, Chile.
Debido a que la Zona Arqueologica de Pachacamac posee un area extensa comparada a las de los otros lugares donde P.
Esos pares deben coexistir: un Huitzilopochtli terrible al lado de un Tlaloc apacible; un Sol simbolo del orden al lado de un Pachacamac representativo del caos.
For the realization of this project, the Municipality of Pachacamac has enabled in favor of the Ministry of Health, three contiguous land in the central area of ??Manchay with an area of ??26,965.04 m2.
Habitantes del Chinchaysuyu ofrendando a su huaca en Pachacamac. Lamina 268 de El primer nueva coronica y buen gobierno.
El diseno del rombo escalonado aparece en los tres valles de la provincia inka de Pachacamac. En el valle de Lurin, el diseno aparece en el Potrero de Cieneguilla (Bonavia, 1961:72, 95).
volviendo de Pachacamac de hacer ciertos sacrificios, paro en el y hablo con un indio hechicero, natural del valle, y le mando fuese a Pachacamac a asistir en los sacrificios, y el hechicero le dijo al Ynga que le diese unas senas, como aca usamos, para el Pontifice que tenia a su cargo el templo, para que viese y le contase que por su mandado iba a la asistencia y servicio de la huaca.
Nevertheless, for anyone who views the present archaeological remains of Teotihuacan in Mexico, Chanchan or Pachacamac, in Peru, all doubts about the existence of urban life and development in pre-Hispanic America would be dispelled.
Esta situacion asemeja a lo sucedido en el templo del sol de Pachacamac. Luego, el area fue encerrada en el cuadrilatero.
The Sican culture began forging its distinctive character (corresponding to the Early Sican period) by fusing selected autochthonous features of the persistent, local Moche (also known as Mochica) cultural tradition with exogenous features related to relatively transient Wari and Pachacamac influence from the south.
Se recolectaron muestras a 91 personas de 20 distritos de Lima Metropolitana: Ate Vitarte (2), Carabayllo (4), Callao (6), Cercado de Lima (3), Comas (4), Chaclacayo (1), Chorrillos (2), La Molina (2), La Victoria (1), Lurin (3), Pachacamac (4), San Bartolo (1), San Isidro (1), San Luis (3), Santa Anita (6), San Juan de Lurigancho (34), Villa el Salvador (3), San Martin de Porres (2), San Juan de Miraflores (5) y Surco (4).
Segun Federico Kauffmann Doig, sus excavaciones en Pachacamac marcaron una nueva era en la disciplina, fundada ahora en tecnicas y metodos precisos: <<Este arqueologo excavo por primera vez utilizando el metodo estratigrafico, que permite auscultar, objetivamente, la antiguedad de unos restos con relacion a otros (secuencias y cronologia relativa).