Pacific, War of the

Pacific, War of the,

1879–84, war between Chile and the allied nations, Peru and Bolivia; also called the Chile–Peruvian War. The trouble began when President Hilarión DazaDaza, Hilarión
, 1840–94, president of Bolivia (1876–79). Entering the army, Daza rose rapidly in rank, chiefly through the favor of the notorious Mariano Melgarejo (1818–1871).
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 of Bolivia rescinded (Feb., 1879) the contract that had given a Chilean company the right to exploit nitrate deposits in Atacama, a province of Bolivia. In reprisal Chile took the port of Antofagasta, and two weeks later war was formally acknowledged. Peru, bound since 1873 by a defensive alliance to Bolivia, refused to promise to remain neutral, and Chile declared war on Peru. At the end of 1879, Chile had not only won Atacama and the Peruvian province of Tarapacá, but by the capture of Huáscar, a Peruvian ironclad warship, had gained control of the sea. Although the presidents of Peru and Bolivia, Mariano Ignacio PradoPrado, Mariano Ignacio
, 1826–1901, president of Peru (1865–67, 1878–79). He aided Ramón Castilla in the revolution of 1854. Indignant at the treaty that compensated Spain for losses during the revolution—a treaty he considered humiliating to
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 and Hilarión Daza, respectively, were replaced by other leaders, no change occurred in the war; by coordinated sea and land attacks the Chilean conquest continued. During 1880, Chilean forces took Tacna and Arica and, after an invasion by sea and the victories of Chorillos and Miraflores (Jan., 1881), made a triumphal entry into Lima. Although the Peruvian leader Andrés Avelino CáceresCáceres, Andrés Avelino
, 1836?–1923, president of Peru (1886–90, 1894). He was a commander in the war with Chile (see Pacific, War of the) and continued to wage guerrilla warfare long after Peru had been conquered.
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, aided by Miguel IglesiasIglesias, Miguel
, 1822–1901, president of Peru (1881–85). A general, he fought in the war with Chile (see Pacific, War of the), distinguishing himself in the defense (1881) of Lima.
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, gallantly fought a guerrilla campaign, Peru and Bolivia were thoroughly vanquished. The Treaty of Ancón (Oct., 1883) restored peace between Peru and Chile; a truce at Valparaíso (Apr., 1884) was signed between Bolivia and Chile, but a definitive treaty was not agreed upon until 1904. Chile acquired Atacama, Bolivia's only coastal territory, now called Antofagasta. Peru also had to cede Tarapacá to Chile and surrendered control of the provinces of Tacna and Arica, their disposition to be decided by plebiscite after 10 years. This provision led to the Tacna-Arica ControversyTacna-Arica Controversy
, 1883–1929, dispute between Chile and Peru. It arose from provisions of the Treaty of Ancón (1883), which ended the War of the Pacific (see Pacific, War of the).
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