Paekche

Paekche

 

a Korean state that, along with Koguryo and Silla, emerged at the beginning of the Common Era. Paekche formed as a result of the disintegration of primitive clan relations among the Mahan tribes, which inhabited the central and southwestern Korean Peninsula.

According to Korean chronicles, judicial regulations, for example, for the protection of private property, first appeared in the third century, as did official ranks. The formation of a state superstructure was probably completed during the second half of the fourth century. Also at this time Buddhism was introduced as the official religion (384). The socioeconomic nature of the Paekche state is disputable. Evidently, state ownership of land existed, and the state machinery exploited the direct producers, who were obligated to pay taxes and perform labor and military obligations and were subjected to requisitions in kind. Apparently, some sort of role was also played by the exploitation of slaves, usually prisoners of war.

From the end of the fourth century, Paekche engaged in a conflict with Koguryo, which was striving to seize the southern lands. Paekche’s brief military successes gave way to crushing defeats, and Paekche lost its possessions in central Korea. Its capital was moved from Hansong (now Kwangju) to Ungjin (now Kongju) in 475 and to Sabi (now Puyo) in 538. Wars in the fifth to seventh centuries with powerful neighbors, especially Silla, exhausted Paekche. The armies of Silla and the Chinese T’ang dynasty captured Paekche’s capital in 660. Paekche then came under the power of the T’ang conquerors. At the end of the seventh century, it became part of the unified Silla state.

The culture of Paekche exerted a notable influence on the development of early feudal Japanese culture.

REFERENCES

Istorii Korei, vol. 1. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from Korean.)
Istoriia Korei: S drevneishikh vremen do nashikh dnei, vol. 1. Moscow, 1974.

M. N. PAK

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As I wrote in the previous article, "We can probably discount the story, found in the Chronicles of Japan (Nihon shoki, completed in 720), which tells of Paekche envoys bringing books to Japan in the fourth century, and perhaps even the putative Paekche historiographical works cited in the same work, but we have clear evidence of the importation of Buddhist texts from Korea in the eighth century.
According to the legend of Zenkoji's wonder-working Amida triad, Amida was the first Buddha icon that was transmitted to Japan from the Korean kingdom of Paekche with the introduction of Buddhism in the year of 538.
But Como identifies a second image of Shotoku in these early records as a priest-king, which he traces to immigrant groups from Paekche who were closely associated with Horyuji.
By the first century AD, the Korean Peninsula was divided into the kingdoms of Shilla, Koguryo, and Paekche.
They date to the mid fifth century, and probably came from Paekche (in southern Korea) to Japan, or possibly from Koguryo (in northern-central Korea) to Paekche to Japan.
of Cambridge) provides an overview of Japanese religion from 538 to 1582, the dates marking the official arrival of Buddhism from Paekche, and the utter destruction of the monasteries on Nieizan by Oda Nobunaga.
After his visit to South Korea, he mentioned in a magazine interview that the emperor had commented that Emperor Kanmu's birth mother was a descendent of King Muryong of the Kingdom of Paekche.
The bronze incense urn is believed to be the most admired metal artwork created in Korea during the Paekche period in the late sixth century A.
According to the Nihon Shoki (Chronicles of Japan), the Analects were brought to Japan by Yamato Court scholar Wani, who immigrated from the Korean state of Paekche in A.
According to the official records of the Nihon shoki, Buddhism was introduced in Japan in 552 from the Korean peninsula when the king Songmyong [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] of Paekche [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sent Buddha statues and sutras to Japan.
23 that his roots may be traced to the Korea, citing possible kinship between the ancient Japanese imperial family and the Paekche Kingdom, one of three kingdoms of early Korean history.
Emperor Akihito, quoting an eight-century history book, ''Shoku Nihongi'' (Sequel to the Chronicles of Japan), said the mother of Emperor Kammu (reigned 781-806) was from the line of King Muryong of Korea's Paekche Dynasty.