Palestine Liberation Organization


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Related to Palestine Liberation Organization: Hamas, Yasser Arafat

Palestine Liberation Organization

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), coordinating council for Palestinian organizations, founded (1964) by Egypt and the Arab League and initially controlled by Egypt. Composed of various guerrilla groups and political factions, the PLO is dominated by Al Fatah, the largest group, whose leader, Yasir Arafat, was chairman of the PLO from 1969 to 2004 and established Palestinian control over the organization. Other groups in the PLO include the Syrian-backed As Saiqa and the Marxist-oriented Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).

The PLO was initially committed to the dissolution of Israel, mainly through the use of armed force. Since its founding, the organization has sponsored innumerable guerrilla raids on Israeli civilian and military targets. although it has disclaimed responsibility for many of the Palestinian movement's more spectacular acts of terror. In 1974 the PLO received UN recognition, and a government in exile was recognized by Arab nations as a basis for a future Palestinian state, to be formed from land regained from Israel along the west bank of the Jordan River. In 1976 the PLO was granted full membership in the Arab League.

In 1982 the PLO was weakened when, after the Israeli siege of Beirut, Lebanon (see Arab-Israeli Wars), PLO guerrillas in West Beirut were dispersed to other Arab countries. In 1988 the PLO responded to the Palestinian uprising, or Intifada, in the West Bank and Gaza Strip by proclaiming the establishment of an independent Palestinian state. The PLO also equivocally recognized Israel's right to exist and renounced terrorism.

In 1991 the Lebanese army, with Syrian backing, forced the PLO out of its strongholds in S Lebanon, and PLO relations with the West deteriorated because of PLO support of Iraq in the Persian Gulf War. In 1993, a peace agreement between the PLO and Israel was reached providing for mutual recognition and a transition to a degree of Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. In 1994, Arafat appointed an interim 19-member Palestinian Authority (PA), under his direction, to administer Palestinian affairs in the areas of self-rule; the Palestinian Authority has since become independent of the PLO. Under a 1995 accord, self-rule was extended over a two-year period to all major Arab cities and villages in the West Bank, except East Jerusalem.

Arafat was elected president of the Palestinian-controlled territory in 1996. In the same year the PLO formally revoked all clauses in its founding charter that called for the dissolution of Israel, and Arafat pledged to fight terrorism. Agreements in the late 1990s gradually increased the area of the West Bank under Palestinian control, but violence resumed in 2000 after further negotiations with Israel stalled. Following Arafat's death in 2004, Mahmoud Abbas succeeded him as PLO chairman and in 2005 as Palestinian president. In the Palestinian legislative council elections in 2006, Hamas won a majority of the seats in a victory that in part was a rejection of the corruption and failures associated with the PLO. Subsequently there was fighting between Al Fatah and Hamas forces in 2006 and 2007, and when Hamas seized control in Gaza in June, 2007, Abbas dismissed the Hamas-led government, accusing it of an attempted coup. Attempts since then to establish a national unity government including both Al Fatah and Hamas have been unsuccessful, and tensions between the two continued. In 2017 negotiations led to a preliminary deal between Hamas and Al Fatah to return the Gaza Strip to PA control, but progress on the agreement subsequently stalled and tensions revived.

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Palestine Liberation Organization

 

(PLO; Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyah), the group uniting the majority of organizations in the Palestinian resistance movement, a movement struggling to secure the legitimate rights of the Arab people of Palestine. Created in 1964, the PLO was recognized as the only legal representative of the Arab people of Palestine at the conference of Arab heads of state in Algiers (November 1973) and at a number of other conferences and meetings. It has observer status at the United Nations and is a member of the Arab League. There are PLO bureaus in almost all Arab countries and in a number of countries in Europe and Asia. Armed forces of the Palestinian resistance movement are stationed in Lebanon, Syria, and other Arab countries.

The supreme body of the PLO is the Palestine National Council (PNC), which usually convenes once a year. Sessions of the PNC elect the executive committee of the PLO to provide political and organizational leadership for the PLO’s activities between sessions. Yasir Arafat has been chairman of the executive committee since February 1969.

The main information organs of the PLO are the Palestine Information Agency (WAFA) and the weekly Filastin al-Thawrah (Palestine Revolution). [18–1424–2; updated]

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
77; "Letter to the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization from the Palestine National Front in the Occupied Territories, 1 December 1973," Journal of Palestine Studies 3 (Spring 1974): 187188; "Part of the Declaration of the Palestine National Front in the Occupied Territories on the Issue of Representation of the Palestinian People and Their Just Rights," al-Watha'iq al-Filastiniyah al-'Arabiyah li 'Am 1974 [Palestinian Arab Documents for the Year 1974, cited hereafter as PAD 1974] (Beirut: Institute for Palestinian Studies, 1976), p.
Lindh later decided to join the (a) Taliban (b) Islamic Brotherhood (c) Pakistan military (d) Palestine Liberation Organization.
Nasser's Soviet puppet state also provided the birthplace and headquarters for one of the most durable and successful terrorist groups of all time: the Palestine Liberation Organization. Yasser Arafat's Fatah (Arabic for "Conquest"), the dominant arm of the PLO, was formed under Nasser's sponsorship in 1956.
When the Palestine Liberation Organization came into being in 1964, it filled a political vacuum by being the first organ through which the people might "freely express" themselves collectively and politically.
Israeli peace activists, Palestinians., and many other observers are beginning to believe that the Clinton Administration's Middle East policy is jeopardizing the peace agreement signed last September by Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestine Liberation Organization Chairman Yasir Arafat.
Ahmad, who is member of Fatah Central Committee and the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), met with the Russian Deputy Foreign Minister and Special Presidential Envoy for the Middle East and North Africa, Mikhail Bogdanov, at the Russian Foreign Ministry headquarters in Moscow, and gave the letter from Abbas to Putin.
Mahmoud Abbas, President of the State of Palestine and Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization, will arrive on Sunday on a three-day visit to Oman.
Jordanian Foreign Minister Ayman Al-Safadi and secretary general of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Saeb Erekat AMMAN, July 8 (KUNA) -- Jordanian and Palestinian officials warned on Sunday against the continued absence of real horizons regarding ending the Israeli occupation.
Saeb Erekat Palestinian chief negotiator and secretary general of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) - File Photo RAMALLAH - 3 January 2018: Saeb Erekat, the secretary general of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)'s Executive Committee, said that any attempt by the United States and Israel to force the Palestinians to accept dictations "will be in vain".
TEHRAN (FNA)- The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) condemned the bus terror attack in Egypt that left 22 Coptic Christians, many of them children, dead, and dozens more injured.
Ramallah/PNN/ Tayseer Khalid, a member of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization, a member of the Political Bureau of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, warned that the USA administration was exerting pressure on the Israeli government to curb construction in settlements and called on all concerned party not to compete ...
Doha, Rajab 12, 1433, Jun 2, 2012, SPA - The Head of Negotiations Affairs Department of Palestine Liberation Organization, Dr.

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