Additionally, 3 trees were randomly selected from each treatment group and 3 leaves per plant were collected to measure the tissue microstructure of the leaves and the chloroplast ultrastructure of the palisade tissue.
We measured the thickness of the epidermis, palisade tissue and spongy tissue at micrometre resolution under an OLYMPUS optical microscope and took photographs (Qin et al., 2012).
Fig.1F shows that the cell vacuole membrane in palisade tissue was integrated, the chloroplasts were crowded at the edge of the cell by the vacuole and became flattened.
We measured the cross-sectional thickness of leaf epidermis, palisade tissues and spongy tissues and used the thickness ratio of palisade over spongy tissues as an indicator of leaf morphology (Table 2).
sup.-3]) Palisade tissue
45.62 (3.33) (b) 64.09 (4.01) (a) thickness ([micro]m) Spongy tissue 108.89 (7.72) (a) 77.5 (2.95) (b) thickness ([micro]m) Leaf thickness 163.92 (12.23) (a) 161.63 (4.25) (a) ([micro]m) Characteristics MAF AF Leaf area 7.55 (0.24) (b) 10.77 (0.46) (a) ([cm.sup.2]) Leaf dry 0.07 (0) (b) 0.08 (0) (a) weight (g) Stomatal 769.54 (11.71) (c) 556.34 (9.87) (d) frequency (no.
Mesophyll tissue A: there is no differentiation of palisade tissue
and spongy tissue in the mesophyll cells of bamboo plant leaf, moreover, cell wall folds inward and space among cells is small.
Sun plants and shade plants both need a week or two to build thicker palisade tissue
to filter light energy so that interior tissue is protected.
No increase was observed in coconut in the number of palisade tissue layers compared to the plants cultivated in a greenhouse, unlike observations by FIDELIS et al.
In several species studied, the meristem of the leaf cultivated in vitro had poorly formed palisade tissue consisting mainly of spongy parenchyma with large intercellular air spaces.
Sections of leaves from plants cultivated in vitro showed structural disarrangement in the palisade cells, presence of starch in the palisade tissue, acidic polysaccharides located on the epidermis and mesophyll, and epidermis with cuticle denser when compared to plants cultivated in the greenhouse.
However, there is a stronger restriction on the palisade tissue than on the spongy one in leaves of uncovered plants (Table 1).
According to the data on the thickness of palisade tissue and the availability of radiation in each environment, it was possible to notice that grapevines do not increase the thickness of the parenchyma proportionally to the reduction in solar radiation, even though they follow the same trend (Table 1).