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a style in 17th- and 18th-century European architecture that developed, within the limits of classicism, the principles established by Palladio. Architects opposed to the affected character and irrationality of the baroque were greatly attracted to the palaces, churches, and villas designed by Palladio, which were characterized by symmetrical planning combined with an extremely varied use of compositional devices and elements from the classical orders. Palladio’s treatise The Four Books of Architecture (1570) was crucial to the spread of his ideas.
V. Scamozzi, who completed some of Palladio’s projects, is considered the first representative of Palladianism. In the 17th century the style was most widespread in the architecture of England (I. Jones) and Holland (J. van Campen). Palladianism enjoyed the height of its popularity in the 18th century, at which time English and German representatives of the style designed buildings, mostly suburban villas, distinguished by elegant yet simple ornament, functional and comfortable layout, and thorough integration with the surroundings (landscape parks). Among the English Palladian architects were Lord Burlington, W. Kent, K. Campbell, J. Paine, and W. Chambers; German representatives included G. W. von Knobelsdorff and F. W. F. von Erdmannsdorf.
Palladianism appeared in Russia in the 1780’s and 1790’s. Most works in the style are distinguished by a certain intimacy and elegant simplicity. Elements of Palladianism characterize the work of C. Cameron, G. Quarenghi, and N. A. L’vov.
REFERENCESIl’in, M. “Nasledie Palladio i russkaia arkhitektura kontsa XVIII veka.” Arkhitektura SSSR, 1938, no. 10.
Il’in, M. “O palladianstve v tvorchestve D. Kvarengi i N. L’vova.” In the collection Russkoe iskusstvo XVIII veka. Moscow, 1973. Pages 103–08.
Vseobshchaia istoriia arkhitektury vol. 7. Moscow, 1969.
Wittkower, R. Palladio and Palladianism. London, 1974.