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Pamir(pəmēr`, pä–) or
Pamirs,mountainous region of central Asia, located mainly in Tajikistan and extending into NE Afghanistan and SW Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China; called the "roof of the world." Many peaks rise to more than 20,000 ft (6,096 m); Ismoili Somoni PeakIsmoili Somoni Peak,
24,590 ft (7,495 m) high, NW Tajikistan, in the Pamir; the highest point in Tajikistan. Originally called Garmo Peak, it was determined (1932–33) the highest peak in the USSR and was renamed Stalin Peak. In 1962 the peak was renamed Communism Peak.
..... Click the link for more information. (24,590 ft/7,495 m) and Lenin PeakLenin Peak
or Ibn Sina Peak,
formerly Kaufmann Peak
, 23,405 ft (7,134 m) high, on the border of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Also known as Kuh-i-Gamo [warm mountain], it is the highest point in the Trans-Alai range, and in the USSR its height was exceeded only
..... Click the link for more information. (also known as Ibn Sina Peak and Kuh-i-Gamo; 23,508 ft/7,165 m) are the Pamir's highest. The region forms a geologic structural knot from which the great Tian ShanTian Shan
or Tien Shan
[Chin.,=celestial mountains], mountain system of central Asia, extending c.1,500 mi (2,410 km) from the Pamir Mts., Tajikistan, NE through the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, NW China, to the China-Mongolia border; Pobeda Peak (24,406 ft/7,439
..... Click the link for more information. , KarakorumKarakorum
mountain range, extending c.300 mi (480 km), between the Indus and Yarkant rivers, N Kashmir, S central Asia; SE extension of the Hindu Kush. It covers disputed territory, held by China on the north, India on the east, and Pakistan on the west.
..... Click the link for more information. , KunlunKunlun
, great mountain system of central Asia, between the Himalayas and the Tian Shan, extending c.1,000 mi (1,610 km) E from the Pamir Mts., along the Tibet-Xinjiang border in W China and into Qinghai prov.
..... Click the link for more information. , and Hindu KushHindu Kush
, a high mountain system, extending c.500 mi (800 km) W from the Pamir Knot, N Pakistan, into NE Afghanistan; rising to 25,236 ft (7,692 m) in Tirich Mir, on the border of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
..... Click the link for more information. mountain systems radiate. Snowcapped throughout the year, the Pamir experiences long cold winters and cool summers. Annual precipitation is c.5 in. (12.7 cm), which supports grasslands but few trees. Several large glaciers, including the 144-mi-long (231-km) Murghab Valley glacier, are in the Pamir. Coal is mined in the W Pamir, but nomadic sheep herding in the upland meadows is the main economic activity. Terek Pass, used by Italian traveler Marco Polo on his way to China in 1271, is one of several high passes used by routes passing through the Pamir. The French explorer Pierre BonvalotBonvalot, Pierre Gabriel Édouard
, 1853–1933, French explorer and author. In 1880–82 he visited central Asia, explored Kohistan, and returned to France by way of Bukhara, the Caspian sea, and the Caucasus.
..... Click the link for more information. made the first European north-south crossing of the Pamir in 1886.