Pamplona

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Pamplona

Pamplona (pämplōˈnä), city (1990 pop. 183,525), capital of Navarre, N Spain, on the Arga River. An older spelling is Pampeluna. It is an important communications, agricultural, and industrial center, manufacturing crafts, paper, and chemicals. The Univ. of Navarre (1952) is there.

An ancient city of the Basques, it was repeatedly captured (5th–9th cent.) by the Visigoths, the Franks, and the Moors, but none of the conquerors—not even Charlemagne, who took it in 778 and razed its walls—exercised control for long. In 824 the Basque kingdom of Pamplona, later called the kingdom of Navarre, was founded. Pamplona remained the capital of Navarre until 1512, when Ferdinand V united the major part of Navarre with Castile. In the Peninsular War, Pamplona was taken (1808) by the French and (1813) by the English.

The city is still surrounded by old walls and fortifications and has retained its Gothic cathedral (14th–15th cent.). The celebration of the feast of San Fermin, described in Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises, is marked by running bulls to the bullring. Many residents and visitors run with the bulls through the streets, risking injury and even death.

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Pamplona

 

a city in northern Spain, in the Pyrenees, in the Arga River (a tributary of the Aragon) valley. Capital of Naverre Province. Population, 147,200 (1971). Pamplona has chemical, machine-building, pulp and paper, and food-processing industries. It has a university and is a tourist center.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pamplona

a city in N Spain in the foothills of the Pyrenees: capital of the kingdom of Navarre from the 11th century until 1841. Pop.: 190 937 (2003 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in classic literature ?
On the Tuesday there was a bitter frost, and the ground rung like iron beneath the feet of the horses; yet ere evening the prince himself, with the main battle of his army, had passed the gorge and united with his vanguard at Pampeluna. With him rode the King of Majorca, the hostage King of Navarre, and the fierce Don Pedro of Spain, whose pale blue eyes gleamed with a sinister light as they rested once more upon the distant peaks of the land which had disowned him.
By the Thursday morning the whole army was encamped in the Vale of Pampeluna, and the prince had called his council to meet him in the old palace of the ancient city of Navarre.
To mend the matter, when we came to Pampeluna it continued snowing with so much violence and so long, that the people said winter was come before its time; and the roads, which were difficult before, were now quite impassable; for, in a word, the snow lay in some places too thick for us to travel, and being not hard frozen, as is the case in the northern countries, there was no going without being in danger of being buried alive every step.
The wounding of Loyola at the siege of Pampeluna in his legs is a fact well known, but his undergoing the operation of having his leg broke again from the unskilfulness of his surgeons, is not so: "Porque ni mudo color, ni gimio, ni suspiro, ni hubo siquiera un ay, ni dijo palabra que mostrase flaqueza" (Rivadeneira, Vida, cap.