Pan-Arabism

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Pan-Arabism,

general term for the modern movement for political unification among the Arab nations of the Middle East. Since the Ottoman Turks rose to power in the 14th cent., there have been stirrings among ArabsArabs,
name originally applied to the Semitic peoples of the Arabian Peninsula. It now refers to those persons whose primary language is Arabic. They constitute most of the population of Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi
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 for reunification as a means of reestablishing Arab political power. At the start of World War I, France and Great Britain, seeking allies against the German-Turkish alliance, encouraged the cause of Arab nationalism under the leadership of the Hashemite Sherif Husayn ibn AliHusayn ibn Ali
, 1856–1931, Arab political and religious leader. In 1908 he succeeded as grand sherif of Mecca and thus became ruler of the Hejaz under the Ottoman Empire.
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, a descendant of Muhammad. As ruler of Mecca and a religious leader of Islam, he had great influence in the Arab world, an influence that continued with his two sons, Abdullah (Abdullah IAbdullah I
(Abdullah ibn Husayn) , 1882–1951, king of Jordan (1946–51), b. Mecca; son of Husayn ibn Ali of the Hashemite family. During World War I, Abdullah, with British support, led Arab revolts against Turkish rule.
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 of Jordan) and Faisal (Faisal IFaisal I
or Faysal I
, 1885–1933, king of Iraq (1921–33). The third son of Husayn ibn Ali, sherif of Mecca, he is also called Faisal ibn Husayn. Faisal was educated in Constantinople and later sat in the Ottoman parliament as deputy for Jidda.
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 of Iraq). From the 1930s, hostility toward Zionist aims in PalestinePalestine
, historic region on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, at various times comprising parts of modern Israel, the West Bank and Gaza (recognized internationally by nations as independent Palestine), Jordan, and Egypt; also known as the Holy Land.
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 was a major rallying point for Arab nationalists.

The movement found official expression after World War II in the Arab LeagueArab League,
popular name for the League of Arab States,
formed in 1945 in an attempt to give political expression to the Arab nations. The original charter members were Egypt, Iraq, Jordan (then known as Transjordan), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.
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 and in such unification attempts as the Arab Federation (1958) of Iraq and Jordan, the United Arab RepublicUnited Arab Republic,
political union (1958–61) of Egypt and Syria. The capital was Cairo. The two countries were merged (1958) into a single unit comprising the Southern (Egypt) and the Northern (Syria) Regions, with Gamal Abdal Nasser as president.
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, the Arab Union (1958), the United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates,
federation of sheikhdoms (2015 est. pop. 5,780,000), c.30,000 sq mi (77,700 sq km), SE Arabia, on the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. The federation, commonly known as the UAE, consists of seven sheikhdoms: Abu Dhabi (territorially the largest of the
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, and the Arab Maghreb Union (see under MaghrebMaghreb
or Magrib
[Arab.,=the West], Arabic term for NW Africa. It is generally applied to all of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia but actually pertains only to the area of the three countries between the high ranges of the Atlas Mts. and the Mediterranean Sea.
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). The principal instrument of Pan-Arabism in the early 1960s was the Ba'ath partyBa'ath party
, Arab political party, in Syria and in Iraq. Its main ideological objectives are secularism, socialism, and pan-Arab unionism. Founded in Damascus in 1941 and reformed, with the name Ba'ath, in the early 1950s, it rapidly achieved political power in Syria.
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, which was active in most Arab states, notably Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen. Gamal Abdal NasserNasser, Gamal Abdal
, 1918–70, Egyptian army officer and political leader, first president of the republic of Egypt (1956–70). A revolutionary since youth, he was wounded by the police and expelled (1935) from secondary school in Cairo for leading an anti-British
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 of Egypt, who was not a Ba'athist, expressed similar ideals of Arab unity and socialism.

The defeat of the Arabs in the Arab-Israeli War of 1967 and the death (1970) of Nasser set back the cause of Pan-Arabism. In the early 1970s, a projected merger between Egypt and Libya came to nought. However, during and following the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, the Arab states showed new cohesion in their use of oil as a major economic and political weapon in international affairs. This cohesion was fractured by the signing of the Camp David accordsCamp David accords,
popular name for the peace treaty forged in 1978 between Israel and Egypt at the U.S. presidential retreat at Camp David, Md. The official agreement was signed on Mar. 26, 1979, in Washington, D.C.
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 between Egypt and Israel and by the Iran-Iraq WarIran-Iraq War,
1980–88, protracted military conflict between Iran and Iraq. It officially began on Sept. 22, 1980, with an Iraqi land and air invasion of western Iran, although Iraqi spokespersons maintained that Iran had been engaging in artillery attacks on Iraqi towns
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. Pan-Arabist rhetoric was used by Iraqi President Saddam HusseinHussein, Saddam
, 1937–2006, Iraqi political leader. A member of the Ba'ath party, he fled Iraq after participating (1959) in an assassination attempt on the country's prime minister; in Egypt he attended law school.
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 in an attempt to stir opposition the UN coalition forces during the Persian Gulf WarPersian Gulf Wars,
two conflicts involving Iraq and U.S.-led coalitions in the late 20th and early 21st cent.

The First Persian Gulf War, also known as the Gulf War, Jan.–Feb.
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, but many Arab nations joined the anti-Iraq coalition.

Bibliography

See G. Antonius, The Arab Awakening (1946, repr. 1965); H. a Faris, ed., Arab Nationalism and the Future of the Arab World (1986); B. Pridham, ed., The Arab Gulf and the Arab World (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
The British opposed any identity shift from the Iraq-centric or nation-state focus to pan-Arab nationalism (Kirmanj 2010:44), which suggested the solidarization of all Arabs and was inherent in King Faisal's doctrine of Hashemite unity (Simon 1997:89).
Like Gamal Nasser of Egypt, the Libyan officers had been fired up by pan-Arab nationalism. Their toppling of the dissolute, ineffective and corrupt King Idris, who had plundered the oil revenues at the expense of his poverty-stricken subjects, was generally supported by the population.
From Hitler's rise to power up to the present day, he identifies a wide range of reactions among the Arab world's four main ideological movements: pro-Western liberalism, pan-Arab nationalism, Islamic fundamentalism and Marxism.
The Iraqi Baath party, originally founded in Syria to promote pan-Arab nationalism, included Shi ites but was mainly led by Sunnis.
Baer sweepingly identifies three failed political currents within 'the soul of Islam': pan-Arab nationalism, Sunni revivalist fundamentalism and secular nationalism of the Nasserite variety, adding that
Many of the secular movements such as Gamal Abdel-Nasser's pan-Arab nationalism and socialist and communist elements in the Palestinian struggle were considered counter to U.S.
It is said the US has a role in the current shift back to secularism by Iraqi politicians - Saddam's regime was secular and the now-defunct Arab Ba'th Socialist Party of Iraq has been a secular movement in the region and has called for pan-Arab nationalism. The Syrian regime follows the same Ba'thist/pan-Arabist ideology, despite its being part of the Iran-led axis, which is one of the contradictions partly explaining the powerful effects of taqiyah in the GME.
The leader drew regional adoration for espousing pan-Arab nationalism throughout the 1960s before falling from grace after the defeat of Egypt and other Arab states in the 1967 war against Israel.
Abdul-Karim Qassem who at the time was under pressure from the wave of pan-Arab nationalism emanating from Gamal Abdul-Nasser's regime in Egypt.
The Assad regime applies a Ba'thist ideology, which is pan-Arab nationalism but is secular; it regards Lebanon, Jordan and the Palestinian territories as being part of Greater Syria.
In the case of the Baath, this reflects first and foremost secular pan-Arab nationalism. Islamist radicals for their part often draw strength from local ethnic and national resentments, whether Kashmiri, Chechen, Pashtun, Palestinian or Sunni Iraq Arab; but their central allegiance is always to the idea of the undivided umma, or transnational community of all (or, for Al Qaeda, right-thinking Sunni) Muslims.
Whether his actions were rogue or sanctioned, Copeland was not the only CIA official to conclude that the Muslim Brothers, by virtue of their opposition to both Communism and pan-Arab nationalism, might serve as a counterweight to Nasser.