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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a nationalistic, chauvinist bourgeois ideology, which claims that all peoples speaking Turkic languages, and the Muslim Turks in particular, are one nation and should unite to form a single state under the aegis of Turkey.

Pan-Turkism originated at the turn of the 20th century and evolved as an outgrowth of Turkism, an early form of Turkish bourgeois nationalism. After the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, as reactionary tendencies became stronger in the policies of the Committee of Union and Progress, Pan-Turkism began to prevail over Turkism, which it had completely displaced by the eve of World War I (1914–18). Like Pan-Islam, Pan-Turkism was used by the Young Turks as a basic means of propaganda in their effort to draw Turkey into a war with Russia.

Pan-Turkism was also actively propagandized by certain bourgeois nationalist parties and movements in Middle Asia and Transcaucasia (Jadidism, for example), which endeavored to distract the workers from the revolutionary struggle and separate the national borderlands fom Russia. After the October Revolution of 1917 in Russia, many counterrevolutionaries in Transcaucasia and Middle Asia opposed Soviet power in the name of Pan-Turkism; however, they did not find support among the masses.

The policy of Pan-Turkism was also rejected by the leaders of the Kemalist Revolution, who accepted the principles of Turkism, distinguished it from Pan-Turkism, and even replaced the term “Turkism” with “nationalism,” a concept limited to Turkish territory. However, after the death of Mustafa Kemal Pasha (Atatürk), and especially during World War II (1939–45), Pan-Turkists became active in Turkey, establishing close ties with the fascist Germans, conducting an embittered anti-Soviet campaign, calling for the seizure of Soviet territories, and practically transforming Pan-Turkism into a Turkish variety of fascism. Since World War II, Pan-Turkism has been used by reactionary circles in Turkey as one of the chief instruments of anticommu-nist policy.


Tveritinova, A. S. “Mladoturki i pantiurkizm.” Kr. soobshcheniia instituta vostokovedeniia, 1956, no. 22.
Eremeev, D. E. “Kemalizm i pantiurkizm.” Narody Azii i Afriki, 1963, no. 3.
Gasanova, E. Iu. “Obshchestvennaia mysl’ v Turtsii. …” In Sovremennaia filosofskaia i sotsiologicheskaia mysl’ stran Vostoka. Moscow, 1965.
Berkes, N. The Development of Secularism in Turkey. Montreal, 1964.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
On the other hand, among the millions of Turkic Muslims, an emerging leadership from Crimea to Bukhara was popularizing the idea of Pan-Turkism.12 Karsavin even tried to achieve some kind of rapprochement with the Soviet authorities but the efforts proved self-abortive and the movement slowly fizzled out within a decade.
For a long time, terrorist and extremist forces have been beating the drum for separatist activities by distorting, fabricating and falsifying the history of Xinjiang, exaggerating the cultural differences between ethnic groups, instigating isolation and hatred, and advocating religious extremism.At the turn of the 20th century, separatists and religious extremists in and outside China, inheriting the so-called theories of 'Pan-Turkism' and 'Pan-Islamism' created by former colonialists, spread the word that Uyghurs were the only 'masters' of Xinjiang, that the ethnic cultures of Xinjiang were not Chinese culture, and that Islam was the only religion practised by ethnic groups of Xinjiang.
Jadidism was first associated with Educational reforms but soon elements of Pan-Nationalism, Pan-Tatarism, Pan-Turkism and Pan Islamism appeared.
They also warn people against the dangers of "pan-Islamism," "pan-Turkism," and "pan-Kazakhism" - ideologies or identities that the government finds threatening.
(27.) Adam Baker, "Between Energy and Soft Pan-Turkism: Turkey and the Turkic Republics," Turkish Policy, Vol.
However, even this historical reality in the Soviet historiography was intentionally distorted, having gained such political labels as 'Pan-Islamism', 'Pan-Turkism'.Thus, the political repression of the idea of jadidism, started by the colonial authorities, was continued in the Soviet totalitarian regime and became strictly ideological.
The Central Asian States did not endorse Turkey to propagate the idea of Pan-Turkism and prefer to stick with their Kazakh, Tajik and Uzbek identities.
Second is the growing influx of Tatar and Turkic emigres from the Tsarist Russia into the Ottoman Empire where they began to propagate Turkish nationalism and pan-Turkism through a range of publications and associational activities.
Other countries, including Russia, have banned them for their supposed involvement in espionage activities and for promoting pan-Islamism and pan-Turkism.
Ankara has been promoting the commercial aspect of pan-Turkism along the old Silk Road, with oil and gas pipelines to pass through Turkey from Central Asia and the Middle East to Europe.