Panama Canal Zone

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Panama Canal Zone,

former territory within Panama, 553 sq mi (1,432 sq km), that was administered by the United States under a 1903 treaty (with later amendments) with Panama. The zone included the Panama CanalPanama Canal,
waterway across the Isthmus of Panama, connecting the Atlantic (by way of the Caribbean Sea) and Pacific oceans, built by the United States (1904–14, on territory leased from the republic of Panama) and expanded by Pamana (2007–16).
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 and an area extending 5 mi (8.1 km) on each side. Under the terms of a later treaty (1977), the zone was abolished in Oct., 1979, and returned to Panamanian rule; the canal itself was ceded to Panama in 1999. Panama has begun turning former military installations into housing, civilian ports, hotels, industrial parks, universities, and sports facilities. Some bases have been converted into tourist complexes aimed at attracting cruise-ship passengers, while some undeveloped areas have become eco-tourist sites. The northern section of the former territory is now part of Colón prov., and the southern section part of Panamá prov. CristóbalCristóbal
, town, Colón prov., near the Caribbean end of the Panama Canal, Panama. Cristóbal is located in the former Panama Canal Zone and was the American residential suburb of Colón; it has been under Panamanian jurisdiction since 1979.
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, BalboaBalboa,
town (1990 pop. 2,751), Colón prov., in the former Panama Canal Zone, on the Gulf of Panama. The port for Panama City, Balboa was the administrative headquarters of the Panama Canal Zone. It was also the site of a U.S. navy base (closed 1999).
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 (Caribbean and Pacific ports, respectively), and Ancon are the chief towns.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Panama Canal Zone


the part of Panama through which the Panama Canal flows. The zone is a 16.1-km-wide strip stretching along both banks of the Panama Canal from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans and cutting Panama into two parts. Area, 1,432 sq km. Population, 51,400 (1975). The administrative center is Balboa Heights. Railroads and highways have been built within the zone.

Under the United States-Panamanian Treaty of 1903 the USA acquired the Panama Canal Zone in perpetuity and established political, military, and economic control over the area. Since 1939 the Canal Zone has been officially under the jurisdiction of the US Defense Department and is administered by a governor appointed by the president of the USA. At the same time the governor, who is a general of the US Army, heads the “civil government” of the Canal Zone, and he is the president of the Panama Canal Company. In addition to naval and air force bases at both ends of the canal and at the ocean ports, the USA maintains fortresses, airfields, and a permanent military force in the zone, all under the control of the US Southern Command. There are several US military schools for training Latin American officers in the Canal Zone. In compensation, the US government pays Panama $2.3 million annually; in 1973 the USA earned about $100 million from the operation of the canal. The Panamanian people and government are waging a stubborn struggle for the return of the Canal Zone. [19–408–2; updated]

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
141-168; STEPAN, Nancy, Picturing Tropical Nature, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 2001; FRENKEL, Stephen, Culturallmperialism and the Development of the Panama Canal Zone, 1912-1960, Ph.
Lapham is correct in saying that Roosevelt afterward justified his hasty recognition of the new republic "in the interests of collective civilization." Panama proceeded to negotiate its own canal treaty, and, upon ratification by both parties in 1904, the ten-mile-wide "Panama Canal Zone" was leased to el Coloso del Norte, for the specific purpose of constructing and maintaining an international waterway.
Gorges (Gorges successfully stamped out yellow fever in the Panama Canal Zone preparatory to the completion of the canal) who held that yellow fever had originated in south and central America.
moored from 1968 to 1975 in the Panama Canal Zone, allowing the waters of Gatun Lake to be used for filling locks." Actually, the situation was much more complex.
military forces in the old Panama Canal Zone. Under the terms of the old Panama Canal Treaty, the United States government had rights to the Panama Canal Zone "as if it were the sovereign." That language was very carefully drafted to make it clear that the United States government was not in fact or in law "the sovereign" in the old Panama Canal Zone.
The report finds that while it is "unlikely that (Hutchison Whampoa) officials or employees would overtly sabotage or damage the canal on orders from Beijing," China could pose an "indirect" threat to the Panama Canal zone through the corporation.
If past ceremonies are a guide, a white symbolic key will be passed and, for the first time, all of Panama's territory, including the 600- plus square miles of the Panama Canal Zone, will be held by Panamanians.
forces officially withdrew from Rodman Naval Station in the Panama Canal Zone. Rodman was the Navy's main base in Latin America and will be used as a fuel bunkering terminal by the U.S.
citizen, resident or national, or a resident of Canada, Mexico, the Panama Canal Zone or the Republic of Panama at some time during the calendar year in which the taxpayer's tax year begins.(20) 4.
From 1916 to 1918 he worked in the Panama Canal Zone as a clerk for the government and as a reporter for the Panama Star-Herald.
The Panama Canal Zone received a permanent civil government by executive order of Pres.
Born in Sac City, Iowa (April 17, 1889); he graduated from Shattuck School (1909); was commissioned a 2d lieutenant in the 21st Infantry (1910); served in a variety of posts, including tours in the Philippines, the Panama Canal Zone, and along the Mexican border; served in the Mexican punitive expedition (March 15, 1916-February 5, 1917); did not get into combat during World War I; promoted to major (1918); graduated from the Command and General Staff School (1923) and from the Army War College (1925); promoted to lieutenant colonel (1934), promoted to colonel (1939) and brigadier general (April 1941); ordered to the Philippines, he commanded the Southern Luzon Force (41st and 51st Philippine Army divisions, and a battery of U.S.