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see Corpus Juris CivilisCorpus Juris Civilis
, most comprehensive code of Roman law and the basic document of all modern civil law. Compiled by order of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, the first three parts appeared between 529 and 535 and were the work of a commission of 17 jurists presided over by the
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See JAMES BECK, RAPHAEL: THE STANZA DELLA SEGNATURA 74-75 (1993) (including Raphael's fresco Trebonianus Handing the Pandects to Justinian (1511)).
Separate essays by David Ganz and Rosamund McKitterick both deal with the phenomenon of mass production of Bibles in Carolingian Tours: Alcuin-inspired texts employing 'export-quality script' in imposing regal pandects. Margaret Gibson draws attention to a remarkable series of two dozen surviving Carolingian psalters that incorporate preplanned parallel glosses, the text and apparatus clearly differentiated on the page: an elegant, technically innovative if exegetically conservative school-book concept, the prototype for the twelfth-century Glossa Ordinaria.
We learn from the histories of the house that, after becoming abbot of the twin foundation of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow in 6go, Ceolfrith ordered three great pandects of the Vulgate bible to be made.(1) In 716, one of these, with a dedicatory inscription added and with Ceolfrith in attendance, was taken for presentation to St Peter's in Rome.
The idiosyncracies of Amiatinus and the probable origin of the Bodley text in one of the other two pandects are discussed further below.
They may not have been in the Ceolfrithian exemplar at all and thus may not have reached the other two pandects. Whatever the line of transmission from Monkwearmouth-Jarrow to Bodley 572, Amiatinus itself is scarcely likely to have had any direct part in it, having left Northumbria for Italy in 716.
This is why, says Alciato "we see Lorenzo Valla and others of his profession, even the most learned, when they try to restore Greek terms in the Pandects, except insofar as they have made use of the help offered by the old codices, have not got it right one time in ten, because they pay attention to words in isolation and know nothing of what the laws are intended to say." (57) The disparaging reference to "his profession" expresses how those who define themselves, like Valla, as philologists, (58) are viewed by Alciato as rivals in his own profession and considered ill-qualified to work in the areas which they venture into.
(17) The Digest ("ordered abstracts") or Pandects ("encyclopedia") were the second part of Justinian's attempted codification of Roman law, undertaken in the early decades of the sixth century.
Rhodians through the Roman law through the pandects of Justinian;
(18) 'Pandect law' (Pandektenrecht) refers to the law stemming from the piecemeal reception of Roman law that took place in Europe prior to codification.