Unfortunately, the outputs of the climate models and the observation data of the reference period did not permit the evaluation of more detailed climate variations caused for example by the Pandivere
and the South Estonian uplands.
It can be seen on the map that Virumaa, and above all its north-western, central and eastern parts are largely covered with swamplands and forests, which is why the most densely populated areas can be found in the western part of the county on the Pandivere
Highland, and in the northern part of the county on the Viru Plateau.
The Ubja area is located in northern slope of the Pandivere
Upland, south of the northern coast of Estonia (Figs 1 and 2).
The till-covered plain of the Estonian part of the catchment is higher in the south-west and north-west due to the presence of uplands (Pandivere
, Haanja, Otepaa, and Sakala) (Iital et al., 2005).
Currently, Estonia's air surveillance is based on the Kellavere radar, located on the Pandivere
Neile lisandus ka Pandivere
, mida samuti on nime tatud Koeru kihelkonda kuuluvaks.
reservation in West-Virumaa that is similar to Varsaallikas, the average Cl concentration was 16.8 mg/l in 1980-1990 and in Lahemaa Muuksi springs it was 7.8 mg/l in 1981-1990.
(2003) and Raukas (2004) dated the Palivere end moraine zone at 10 000 [+ or -] 1300 [sup.10]Be yr BP (weighted mean age), one single boulder on the Pandivere
end moraine at 13 020 [+ or -] 1117 [sup.10]Be yr BP, and the Haanja (North Lithuanian) end moraine at 13 000 [+ or -] 800 [sup.10]Be yr (weighted mean age).
The direction of groundwater flow has also been changed in that region; natural groundwater flowed from the Pandivere
upland to Lake Peipsi.
The basin of the Parnu River: common descriptive features of the modelled area Descriptive feature Value Total number of modelled rivers, streams, 273 and ditches Total length of all streams 3257 km Total area of arable land 2346 [km.sup.2] Total area of forests 3318 [km.sup.2] Total area of wetlands 353 [km.sup.2] Max height in modelled area 118.5 m (Pandivere
) Min height in modelled area 0 m (Parnu bay) Flow rate in rivers Average of year 2005 Number of hydrological stations 9 active stations (bases for flow rates) Number of modelled sub-basins 542 Number of point sources 169 Number of modelled river segments 1948 Max segment length 1.7 km
Upland has the greatest concentration of eskers in Estonia.
Carbon isotope chemostratigraphy of the Ordovician/Silurian boundary beds in central Estonia: new data from drillcores in the Pandivere