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examination by means of an optical instrument, or endoscope, of hollow organs (for example, the esophagus— esophagoscopy) and body cavities (for example, the abdominal cavity—laparoscopy). Endoscopes are introduced through natural openings (as in bronchoscopy, proctoscopy, or cystoscopy) or through surgical incisions (as in mediastinoscopy). Endoscopy is performed under local or general anesthesia.

The first attempts to examine the urinary bladder and other hollow organs were made as early as the 19th century, but the inadequacy of the endoscopes limited development of the procedures. The possibilities of endoscopy have greatly increased since the second half of the 20th century, with the development of glass-fiber light guides and of instruments of fiber optics based on such light guides. Examination of almost all organs has become possible, and the illumination of the examined object has increased. Conditions for photographing and filming (endophotography and endocinematography) have improved, and it is now possible to make monochromatic and color videotape recordings (modifications of standard cameras and motion-picture cameras are used).

Documentation of the results of endoscopic examination have made possible objective study of the dynamics of pathological processes occurring in any organ. Modern endoscopy plays a special role in diagnosing the early stages of many diseases. The procedure is often combined with endoscopic biopsy, therapeutic measures, and catheterization. Endoscopic offices and departments have been established in many large medical institutions, and some physicians now specialize in endoscopy.


Lukomskii, G. I., and Iu. E. Berezov. Endoskopicheskaia tekhnika v khirurgii. Moscow, 1967.
Loginov, A. S. Laparoskopiia v klinike vnutrennikh boleznei. Moscow, 1969.
Sokolov, L. K. Atlas endoskopii zheludka i dvenadtsatiperstnoi kishki. Moscow, 1975.


References in periodicals archive ?
In our case, earlier upper GI panendoscopy revealed fibrosis of the internal opening, and partial epithelialization of the tracts could be assumed.
The upper gastrointestinal panendoscopy clearly demonstrated a 5 cm irregular, polypoid, ulcerative mass with friability and actively bleeding plus hemostasis management from the bulb to the second portion of duodenum and obstruction over duodenum [Figure 2].
Panendoscopy. Direct rigid laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and esophagoscopy are essential to assessing the traumatized aerodigestive tract and the larynx.
Our patient who presented with abdominal pain and body weight loss and was initially diagnosed as an intestinal T-cell lymphoma based on biopsy of a duodenal lesion found on upper GI panendoscopy. He was therefore treated as such with a CHOP like regimen.
Panendoscopy with directed biopsies were negative for malignancy.
In the case of medically infirm patients with advanced head and neck cancer who are not surgical candidates, a complete panendoscopy can be performed in the office using a transnasal esophagoscope.
(In other clinical situations, biopsy may be delayed pending empiric [or culture-based] treatment with antifungal medications.) Panendoscopy with biopsy of the vocal folds was performed and the specimen was also sent for fungal cultures.
These patients had been diagnosed on the basis of physical examination, panendoscopy, and advanced imaging studies (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging).
Thirty consecutive patients who required diagnostic panendoscopy were selected for this study.
In a patient with a cervical lump, diagnostic procedures such as panendoscopy, biopsy, and staging will often, but riot always, identify the site of the primary tumor.
In retrospect, a more intensive metastatic workup for our patient--with panendoscopy, liver ultrasound, computed tomography of the brain, and whole-body bone scanning--could have changed our treatment approach from curative to palliative.
We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the use of flexible esophagoscopy as part of routine panendoscopy in an academic setting.