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Pannonia(pănō`nēə), ancient Roman province, central Europe, southwest of the Danube, including parts of modern Austria, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, and Serbia. Its natives, the warlike Pannonians, were Illyrians. Their final subjugation by Rome took place in A.D. 9. Pannonia was divided c.A.D. 103 into the provinces of Upper Pannonia and Lower Pannonia. Important centers were Carnuntum (near Hainburg, Austria), Vindobona (ViennaVienna
, Ger. Wien, city and province (1991 pop. 1,539,848), 160 sq mi (414 sq km), capital and largest city of Austria and administrative seat of Lower Austria, NE Austria, on the Danube River.
..... Click the link for more information. ), Aquincum (BudapestBudapest
, city (1990 pop. 2,016,100), capital of Hungary, N central Hungary, on both banks of the Danube. The largest city of Hungary and its industrial, cultural, and transportation center, Budapest has varied manufactures, notably textiles, instruments, and electronics.
..... Click the link for more information. ), and SirmiumSirmium
, ancient city of Pannonia. The site is near modern Sremska Mitrovica, NW Serbia. Sirmium was unimportant until occupied late in the 1st cent. B.C. by the Romans in the conquest of Pannonia. It was prominent later, especially in the 3d and 4th cent. A.D.
..... Click the link for more information. . Pannonia was abandoned by the Romans after 395.
a Roman province formed in A.D. 8 after the division of the Roman province of Illyricum into Upper II-lyricum, or Dalmatia, and Lower Illyricum, or Pannonia. Pan-nonia occupied the western part of modern Hungary, the northern part of modern Yugoslavia, and the eastern part of modern Austria. It derived its name from the Pannonians, a group of Illyrian tribes.
Pannonia became highly romanized during its 400 years of Roman rule. Its economy was agricultural, since the local population, which was increased by an influx of barbarians, was primarily rural. Continual wars in the second to fifth centuries with border tribes, including the Quadi, Marcomanni, Sarma-tians, Goths, and Huns, led to the fall of Roman rule in Pannonia in the early fifth century.
REFERENCESKolosovskaia, Iu. K. Pannoniia v I-III vekakh. Moscow, 1973.
Alföldi, A. Der Untergang der Römerherrschaft in Pannonien, vols. 1–2. Berlin-Leipzig, 1924–26.