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Related to Panzootic: enzootic


(veterinary medicine)
Affecting many animals of different species.



the highest degree of intensity of an epizootic disease, characterized by an unusually wide distribution of infectious disease accompanied by high morbidity of animals over extensive regions (an entire country, several countries, or several continents). Such highly contagious diseases as foot-and-mouth disease, swine plague, Newcastle disease, and fowl plague are often panzootic. Panzootic diseases have a short incubation period and a simple mechanism for transmitting the causative agent (respiratory system or, less frequently, the alimentary canal). Afflicted animals subsequently do not build up a sufficiently stable immunity. Panzootic infections include those whose causative agents are characterized by plurality.

To a certain degree panzootics are caused by social and economic factors, which determine the intensity of economic connections within a country and between countries. Changes in livestock maintenance (overcrowding of animals, the establishment of specialized farming regions) also promote the development of a panzootic.

The successful control of a panzootic depends on how much is known about the disease, the availability of effective diagnostic procedures and preventive measures, and the timely and comprehensive application of anti-epizootic measures.


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The second panzootic of ND was occurred in late 1960s in various regions of Europe, the genotypes V and VI strains were responsible for ND (Alexander, 2003).
New sub-genotype (VIIi) of vNDV from genotype VII is affecting the poultry industry in Asia including Middle East leading severe outbreaks of ND, named as an existence of fifth panzootic (Miller et al.
Phylogenetic analysis: The phylogenetic analysis of the chicken/NDV/Pak/AW-14 isolate is presented in Figure 1, 2, this strain belong to newly emerged panzootic virus's sub-genotype VIIi genotype VII on the basis of complete coding sequence of F gene and full genome.
Over-all, the data confirmed that the commercial poultry, village chickens and pet birds in Pakistan, Indonesia and Middle East were also affected by identical vNDV strains since 2011-12, leading to fifth panzootic.
Topics included chloroquine resistance in malaria; exotic pathogens, illustrated by West Nile virus; effects of exposure to heat and acid pH on Leishmania donovani amastigotes; method for purification of polar tube proteins of Microsporidia; zoonotic spread of rotaviruses and caliciviruses; unforeseen effects of pathogen eradication programs; and panzootic outbreaks of morbillivirus infection in marine mammals and viral and fungal diseases in amphibians.
An early example of an emerging disease panzootic was the introduction of rinderpest in African domestic cattle in 1889 (5).
Chytridiomycosis--an Emerging Panzootic Fungal Disease of Amphibians
We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics.
He gives a sense of their chronology and also attempts to understand the causes of panzootics, with it being suggested that those in Eastern Europe were closely linked with the cattle plagues of Central and Western Europe.
The scientific community has evidence demonstrating that influenza virus genes migrate across continents and animal species and assemble themselves in combinations that are a threat to animal and human health, resulting in panzootics like that caused by influenza A virus (H5N1) or pandemics like that caused by pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.
These include microbes that have a proven ability to 1) lead to human pandemics, 2) lead to panzootics in (nonhuman) animal populations, and 3) mutate at high rates and recombine with other similar or dissimilar microbes.