Panzootic


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Related to Panzootic: enzootic

panzootic

[‚pan·zō′äd·ik]
(veterinary medicine)
Affecting many animals of different species.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Panzootic

 

the highest degree of intensity of an epizootic disease, characterized by an unusually wide distribution of infectious disease accompanied by high morbidity of animals over extensive regions (an entire country, several countries, or several continents). Such highly contagious diseases as foot-and-mouth disease, swine plague, Newcastle disease, and fowl plague are often panzootic. Panzootic diseases have a short incubation period and a simple mechanism for transmitting the causative agent (respiratory system or, less frequently, the alimentary canal). Afflicted animals subsequently do not build up a sufficiently stable immunity. Panzootic infections include those whose causative agents are characterized by plurality.

To a certain degree panzootics are caused by social and economic factors, which determine the intensity of economic connections within a country and between countries. Changes in livestock maintenance (overcrowding of animals, the establishment of specialized farming regions) also promote the development of a panzootic.

The successful control of a panzootic depends on how much is known about the disease, the availability of effective diagnostic procedures and preventive measures, and the timely and comprehensive application of anti-epizootic measures.

I. A. BAKULOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The second panzootic of ND was occurred in late 1960s in various regions of Europe, the genotypes V and VI strains were responsible for ND (Alexander, 2003).
Several panzootics of ND have occurred in poultry since 1926.
One case with striking similarities is the panzootic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis), which has caused global decreases among amphibian species (30).
The panzootic subtype H5N1 virus strains circulating among poultry and wild birds are derived from the Asian influenza (H5N1) lineage first identified in the People's Republic of China in 1996 (3).
The current panzootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) is described event by event since 1996, and the phylogenetic relationships among influenza viruses (H5N1) and potential methods of spread are discussed.
The unprecedented panzootic caused by the HPAI viruses (H5N1) has been mediated by the movement of poultry and poultry products and, in some instances (e.g., clade 2.2 viruses), by wild bird migration (4-6).
Alternatively, we suggest that the 3 observations listed above are consistent with a biological model of geographically widespread immunity to avian influenza A (H5N1) in persons born before 1969, i.e., [approximately equal to] 35 years before the onset of the currently recognized panzootic in domestic poultry.
In many places, preparations to meet the threat of biocrime or bioterror are strengthening the capacity of public health systems to respond to future natural threats of pandemic and panzootic disease.
Topics included chloroquine resistance in malaria; exotic pathogens, illustrated by West Nile virus; effects of exposure to heat and acid pH on Leishmania donovani amastigotes; method for purification of polar tube proteins of Microsporidia; zoonotic spread of rotaviruses and caliciviruses; unforeseen effects of pathogen eradication programs; and panzootic outbreaks of morbillivirus infection in marine mammals and viral and fungal diseases in amphibians.
An early example of an emerging disease panzootic was the introduction of rinderpest in African domestic cattle in 1889 (5).
Infection by virulent strains has resulted in several panzootics since 1926 (1,6,7).