Pappenheim, Gottfried Heinrich, Graf zu

Pappenheim, Gottfried Heinrich, Graf zu

(gôt`frēt hīn`rĭkh gräf tso͞o pä`pənhīm), 1594–1632, German military leader, imperial field marshal in the Thirty Years WarThirty Years War,
1618–48, general European war fought mainly in Germany. General Character of the War

There were many territorial, dynastic, and religious issues that figured in the outbreak and conduct of the war.
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. A convert to Roman Catholicism, he became a counselor in the service of the Holy Roman emperor, but soon abandoned this position for a military career. In the early stages of the Thirty Years War he fought with Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria and the Catholic League, and he distinguished himself against the Protestant Union under Frederick the Winter KingFrederick the Winter King,
1596–1632, king of Bohemia (1619–20), elector palatine (1610–20) as Frederick V. The Protestant diet of Bohemia deposed the Roman Catholic King Ferdinand (Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II) and chose Frederick as king.
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 at the battle of White Mt. (1620). He entered the imperial service in 1623. On May 20, 1631, he led the assault against the Protestant city of Magdeburg, which was sacked and virtually destroyed by his troops. Pappenheim was defeated (September) with Baron von TillyTilly, Johannes Tserklaes, count of
, 1559–1632, general in Bavarian and later imperial service during the Thirty Years War. A younger son of a noble family of Brabant, he served under Duke Alessandro Farnese and against the Turks before entering the service of Duke
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 by the Swedish king, Gustavus Adolphus (Gustavus IIGustavus II
(Gustavus Adolphus), 1594–1632, king of Sweden (1611–32), son and successor of Charles IX. Military Achievements

Gustavus's excellent education, personal endowments, and early experience in affairs of state prepared him for his crucial role
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), at Breitenfeld, but his cavalry was later effective in raids on small bands of Swedish troops. Fighting under the imperial commander Albrecht von WallensteinWallenstein or Waldstein, Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von
, 1583–1634, imperial general in the Thirty Years War, b. Bohemia.
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, he was mortally wounded at Lutzen.
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