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Paraíba(pərīē`bə), state (1991 pop. 3,201,114), 21,765 sq mi (56,371 sq km), NE Brazil, on the Atlantic Ocean. The capital is João PessoaJoão Pessoa
, city (1991 pop. 497,600), capital of Paraíba state, NE Brazil, at the confluence of the Sanhauá and Paraíba do Norte rivers. Cotton, sugar, and minerals are exported through its port, Cabedelo.
..... Click the link for more information. . The state extends inland from the Atlantic to the semiarid plateau of the interior (the sertãosertão
[Port.,=backlands], semiarid hinterland of NE Brazil; c.250,000 sq mi (647,500 sq km). Its characteristic landscape is the caatinga, or thorny scrub forest. The chief occupation of the region is stock raising.
..... Click the link for more information. ). The economy is largely agricultural; although cattle-breeding remains the principal activity, more and more pastures have been given over to cultivation, with cotton and sugarcane as the chief crops. The state produces textiles, salt, food products, and metals (chiefly tin and scheelite). Fishing and the production of vegetable oil and cement are increasingly important. Prior to the arrival of the Portuguese in the late 16th cent., the region was densely settled by numerous Native Americans. The area's colonization took more than 70 years to complete because of Native American hostility. By the early 17th cent. Paraíba was an important and prosperous captaincy, but this prosperity was interrupted by the Dutch occupation (1634–54), more uprisings by Native Americans, and an epidemic of yellow fever in 1686. The first nationalist uprising in the area occurred in 1710. Throughout the 19th cent. economic development was impeded by continual outbreaks of violence and by the abolition of slavery. Not until the 1930s was some economic stability achieved. Frequent droughts have led to great migrations from the countryside to the cities. The state government consists of an elected governor and bicameral legislature. The Universidade Federal da Paraíba has campuses throughout the state.
Paraíba do Sul(do͝o so͞ol), river, c.650 mi (1,050 km) long, rising as the Paraitinga in the Serra do Mar, São Paulo state, SE Brazil. It flows southwesterly to a point NE of São Paulo city where it makes a hairpin turn and continues in a northeasterly direction through the state of Rio de Janeiro to the Atlantic Ocean near Campos. Below Três Rios it flows through a gorge on the Rio de Janeiro–Minas Gerais border. Its beautiful valley forms a rich agricultural region (site of Brazil's first commercial coffee plantation) as well as a major industrial center of Brazil. The river is used for irrigation, transport, and power generation.
a state in northeastern Brazil, mainly in the Brazilian Highlands. Area, 56,400 sq km. Population, 2.4 million (1970). Its capital is the city of João Pessoa. The state’s economy is based on agriculture. Cultivated crops include corn, rice, beans, sugarcane, tobacco, bananas, cotton, and one-third of the country’s sisal. Industries include the production of food and condiments, cotton ginning, cement production, and leather tanning.
the name of two rivers in South America.
(1) A river in southeastern Brazil, in the state of Paraíba. It is 1,140 km long and drains an area of approximately 60,000 sq km. It rises in the Serra do Mar, flows through a valley between the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira, cuts through a coastal mountain range, and empties into the Atlantic Ocean near the city of Campos. The high-water period is from December through March. The mean annual flow rate is 1,010 cu m per sec. The river is navigable in some sections. The Ilha hydroelectric plant, which has a capacity of 165 megawatts, is situated on the Paraíba.
(2) A river in northeastern Brazil, 450 km long. It flows across the Borborema Plateau and into the Atlantic Ocean. There are autumn floods. The lower course is navigable.