Para-Phenylenediamine

Para-Phenylenediamine

 

(p-diaminobenzene), an organic compound, the para isomer of phenylenediamine. Colorless crystals that darken on exposure to light and air. Melting point, 147°C; boiling point, 267°C. The chemical structure of para-phenylenediamine is

A strong reducing agent, para-phenylenediamine quickly oxidizes upon exposure to atmospheric oxygen. It is readily soluble in alcohol and ether, and 1 g dissolves in 100 g of cold water. The substance is obtained by reducing para-nitroaniline or aminoazobenzene and interacts with mineral acids to form salts.

Para-phenylenediamine is used as a microgranular developer in black-and-white photography; the N, N-dialkyl derivatives of para-phenylenediamine, which are more active, are the most widely used developers in color photography. Para-phenylenediamine is also used in the synthesis of many organic dyes and in analytical chemistry. The compound is a strong skin irritant, and its N,N-dialkyl derivatives produce a milder degree of irritation.

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The reference chemicals were: isopropanol (67-63-0); salicylic acid (69-72-7); lactic acid (50-21-5); glycerol (56-81-5); 4-methoxy-acetophenone (100-06-1) chlorobenzene (108-90-7); methyl salicylate (119-36-8); sulfanilamide (63-74-1); ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (97-90-5); phenyl benzoate (93-99-2); eugenol (97-53-0); 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (149-30-4); citral (5392-40-5); isoeugenol (97-54-1); methyldibromo glutaronitrile (35691-65-7); 4-methylaminophenol sulphate (55-55-0); para-phenylenediamine (106-50-3); 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (97-00-7); 4-nitrobenzylbromide (100-11-8); oxazolone (15646-46-5); cinnamyl alcohol (104-54-1).
But, unknown to Chloe, her tattoo was done with black henna, which contains a substance called para-phenylenediamine, typically found in hair dyes.
Doctors have warned that the majority of black henna tattoos are made using a substance called para-phenylenediamine, which is found in hair dyes.
2 and 10 phr of an antioxidant, such as a substituted para-phenylenediamine, and between 0.
Often inkings are not henna at all, but a dye called para-phenylenediamine, which can cause blistering and burns.
Wendy Khan The mum-offour urged those travelling abroad to think twice before opting for the inkings which in many cases are not henna at all, but a substance called para-phenylenediamine which can cause blistering, painful skin burns and may even lead to scarring.
2:10 pm: The African epidemic of para-phenylenediamine sensitization and the "green wall"--Catherine Cartwright-Jones
Topical pure henna is generally safe and well-tolerated in humans but oral and topical henna with additives like para-phenylenediamine have many side effects some of them life threatening.
The British Skin Foundation claims the temporary tattoos can contain a dangerous substance called para-phenylenediamine (PPD) which is found in some hair dyes and is illegal in the European Union.
Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a major ingredient of oxidisable permanent hair dyes.
From June 1, 2012, every shipment of Shampoo or Black Henna should be accompanied with evidence of conformity such as test reports issued by an independent accredited laboratory like Intertek confirming compliance to the below stated requirements: Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) in henna (and hair dye products): maximum 6%; and 1,4 Dioxane: maximum 10ppm in shampoo," the department had stated.