parable

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parable,

the term translates the Hebrew word "mashal"—a term denoting a metaphor, or an enigmatic saying or an analogy. In the Greco-Roman rhetorical tradition, however, "parables" were illustrative narrative examples. Jewish teachers of the 1st cent. A.D. made use of comparisons in narrative form to clarify scripture. As used in the Gospels, the "parable" not only denotes metaphors, analogies, and enigmatic statements, but also short illustrative narratives. In Jesus' parables, the speaker compares an observable, natural, or human phenomenon to the Kingdom (i.e. the rule) of God. Some of these challenge and mystify or even attack the hearer. Other parables are allegories. The major themes of the parables of Jesus include the contrast between the old and new age now dawning in the ministry of Jesus; the necessity of radical decisions; the gradual but sure growth of the Kingdom of God on earth; God's way of relating to people; and God's invitation for people to enter his Kingdom.

Bibliography

See W. S. Kissinger, The Parables of Jesus (1979); R. W. Funk, Parables and Presence (1982); J. Marcus, The Mystery of the Kingdom of God (1986).

Parable

 

a didactic and allegorical literary genre closely resembling the fable and differing from it in the following ways: the parable form arises only within a certain context; the parable does not require a developed plot and may be a simple comparison, although the comparison retains its own abundant symbolism; the parable tends to convey profound religious or moralistic wisdom.

Different types of parables are encountered throughout folklore and literature. However, in epochs with a tendency toward didacticism and allegory the parable was a model for other genres, such as Near Eastern instructive prose, for example the Old Testament and the Syrian Wisdom of Ahikar. The parable was also a model for early Christian and medieval literature: examples are such gospel parables as the parable of the Prodigal Son. In these epochs, when readers perceived any story as a parable, the genre’s poetics predominated. The parable lacked the descriptiveness of ancient or of modern European prose fiction: nature and objects are mentioned only when necessary, and the action takes place as if on a bare stage. As a rule, the personae of parables lack both external features and a personality in the sense of a totality of inner traits; they appear as products not of literary observation but of ethical choice.

In the late 19th century and in the 20th century, a number of writers saw in the economy and pithiness of the parable a model for their own literary work. L. N. Tolstoy attempted to subordinate prose to the laws of the parable. Kafka was influenced by the centuries-old parable tradition, as were the intellectuals Sartre, Camus, Anouilh, and G. Marcel; here characters and settings as traditionally understood were excluded. The parable continues to attract writers seeking ethical bases for human existence; an example is the role of parable devices in the works of B. Brecht.

REFERENCES

Dobrotvorskii, S. “Pritcha v drevne-russkoi dukhovnoi pis’mennosti.” Pravoslavnyi sobesednik, April, 1864.
Likhachev, D. S. Poetika drevnerusskoi literatury, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1971.
Jeremias, J. Die Gleichnisse Jesu, 5th ed. Gottingen, 1958.
Lambert, W. Babylonian Wisdom Literature. Oxford, 1960.

S. S. AVERINTSEV

parable

1. a short story that uses familiar events to illustrate a religious or ethical point
2. any of the stories of this kind told by Jesus Christ
References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, in the parable, the Word of God is sown in all "types of soil," not just on "rich soil.
10) The protagonists in the three films within Profane Parables all must face mortality and death as the films illustrate a counter-narrative to the hegemonic paradigm of artificial happiness.
And in the spirit of the original Godspell, the fictional ensemble go through their paces of reenacting the parables by improvising on the spot.
Perhaps Levine's fourth reason for writing this book is actually the first: to unmask anti-Semitism rampant in parable interpretation.
I emphasize the parables significance as an allegory of ultimate judgment at a time when Milton and others believed themselves to be living at the end of history.
With this in mind, I want to look at three well-known parables from the Gospel of Luke: the Parable of the Pharisee and the Tax Collector (Lk.
8) It seeks to interpret these parables within their Lukan context and for the community Luke addresses.
This well-known parable of the rich man (in early Christian tradition given the name Dives, Latin for a rich man) and Lazarus (not to be confused with the Lazarus in the Gospel of John) poignantly demonstrates the Lukan theme of the great reversal that characterizes the coming reign of God.
And his parables, like all parables, are not meant to be taken literally; they are meant to be interpreted.
The parables appear in folklore and in Biblical, Buddhist, Greek and European religious and cultural tradition as well as in ebrew and Arabic languages.
Hoping to elevate education over training, these critics harkened to "alternative jurisprudential traditions [where] law was taught through the use of stories, metaphors and parables .
As a follower of Jesus Christ, and a psychologist, I have often found myself drawn to the stories, or parables, of Jesus Christ.