parable

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parable,

the term translates the Hebrew word "mashal"—a term denoting a metaphor, or an enigmatic saying or an analogy. In the Greco-Roman rhetorical tradition, however, "parables" were illustrative narrative examples. Jewish teachers of the 1st cent. A.D. made use of comparisons in narrative form to clarify scripture. As used in the Gospels, the "parable" not only denotes metaphors, analogies, and enigmatic statements, but also short illustrative narratives. In Jesus' parables, the speaker compares an observable, natural, or human phenomenon to the Kingdom (i.e. the rule) of God. Some of these challenge and mystify or even attack the hearer. Other parables are allegories. The major themes of the parables of Jesus include the contrast between the old and new age now dawning in the ministry of Jesus; the necessity of radical decisions; the gradual but sure growth of the Kingdom of God on earth; God's way of relating to people; and God's invitation for people to enter his Kingdom.

Bibliography

See W. S. Kissinger, The Parables of Jesus (1979); R. W. Funk, Parables and Presence (1982); J. Marcus, The Mystery of the Kingdom of God (1986).

Parable

 

a didactic and allegorical literary genre closely resembling the fable and differing from it in the following ways: the parable form arises only within a certain context; the parable does not require a developed plot and may be a simple comparison, although the comparison retains its own abundant symbolism; the parable tends to convey profound religious or moralistic wisdom.

Different types of parables are encountered throughout folklore and literature. However, in epochs with a tendency toward didacticism and allegory the parable was a model for other genres, such as Near Eastern instructive prose, for example the Old Testament and the Syrian Wisdom of Ahikar. The parable was also a model for early Christian and medieval literature: examples are such gospel parables as the parable of the Prodigal Son. In these epochs, when readers perceived any story as a parable, the genre’s poetics predominated. The parable lacked the descriptiveness of ancient or of modern European prose fiction: nature and objects are mentioned only when necessary, and the action takes place as if on a bare stage. As a rule, the personae of parables lack both external features and a personality in the sense of a totality of inner traits; they appear as products not of literary observation but of ethical choice.

In the late 19th century and in the 20th century, a number of writers saw in the economy and pithiness of the parable a model for their own literary work. L. N. Tolstoy attempted to subordinate prose to the laws of the parable. Kafka was influenced by the centuries-old parable tradition, as were the intellectuals Sartre, Camus, Anouilh, and G. Marcel; here characters and settings as traditionally understood were excluded. The parable continues to attract writers seeking ethical bases for human existence; an example is the role of parable devices in the works of B. Brecht.

REFERENCES

Dobrotvorskii, S. “Pritcha v drevne-russkoi dukhovnoi pis’mennosti.” Pravoslavnyi sobesednik, April, 1864.
Likhachev, D. S. Poetika drevnerusskoi literatury, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1971.
Jeremias, J. Die Gleichnisse Jesu, 5th ed. Gottingen, 1958.
Lambert, W. Babylonian Wisdom Literature. Oxford, 1960.

S. S. AVERINTSEV

parable

1. a short story that uses familiar events to illustrate a religious or ethical point
2. any of the stories of this kind told by Jesus Christ
References in periodicals archive ?
However, according to Gunter Haufe, the earlier usage (Luke 4:23) and next usage (Luke 6:39) identify parabole as a proverb (in Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, ed.
intendo di raccontare cento novelle, o favole o parabole o istorie che dire le vogliamo, raccontate in diece giorni da una onesta brigata di sette donne e di tre giovani nel pistelenzioso, tempo della passata mortalita fatta, e alcune canzonette dalle predette donne cantate al lor diletto" (Dec.
Selon la parabole du Vanneur: un homme seme dans son champ le bon grain, l'ennemi vient et seme l'ivraie (<< zizania >> en grec) parmi les bons grains.
Le droit civil tente d'ailleurs de les maintenir separees, a un ecart suffisant pour eviter de compromettre l'ordonnancement qui place les droits au dessus des moyens (la procedure servante du droit), alors que la common law s'emploie avec une energie egale a preserver intacte la parabole de l'origine procedurale du droit (la procedure matrice du droit).
Sono simboli e parole della natura: intoccate, silenziose parabole, dove la pietra contiene ogni aspetto di una esistenza indifferenziata: ognuna come una persona che vada cercando la propria espressione per uscire fuori dalla caotica identita, e sia rimasta pietrificata nel corso di questo sforzo, contenendo in se mescolate tutte le immagini possibili [.
3]le de la tE[umlaut]lE[umlaut]vision et de la parabole de nos jours.
The term parable is from the Greek parabole, which translated literally means to "put side by side" or "to compare one thing with another" (Naveh 8).
In Parabole [Parable] a painting by Hieronymous Bosch has reminded him of a parable of Christ.
In Hebrews 11: 17-19 the author says that Abraham offered his only son believing God was able to raise him up, perhaps inferring this from language in Genesis 22: 5, but does not say that Isaac died, although he does say that Abraham received him back en parabole, a term that means "figuratively speaking" and implies that he regards the restoration of Isaac to Abraham as a prefiguration of the resurrection of Jesus (see J.
Chiala (1997), Libro dele Parabole di Enoc: Testo e commento, Brescia: Paideia.
5) This "Quebec of today" was still imbued with its Catholic identity, which is evident in the description of the film offered by Le Droit--"Une version moderne de la parabole de l'enfant prodigue'--the Biblical parable of the prodigal son.