Paradigmatic Relationship

Paradigmatic Relationship

 

an opposing relationship of several elements of language involving a choice of one of a number of mutually exclusive elements. The language units are thus joined in a speaker’s consciousness despite the impossibility of the units’ actually being joined in a speech event. The either-or function of a paradigmatic relationship is opposed to the both-and function of a syntagmatic relationship, in which elements of language coexist when they are realized in a speech event. Parádigmatic relationships are nonlinear and nonsimultaneous. A form’s syntagmatic characteristics are apparently dependent on its paradigmatic properties.

Paradigmatic relationships were first described by F. de Saussure, who termed them associative relationships, in opposition to syntagmatic relationships.

References in periodicals archive ?
Semantically (25a) is the basis of (25b), formally there is a paradigmatic relationship between an NP and a derived adjective expressed by a second order schema:
Thus we see that word formation may be based semantically on a systematic paradigmatic relationship with lexical phrases.
A third conclusion concerns the relationship between morphology and syntax: since there are productive phrasal lexical constructions, and word formation may be based on paradigmatic relationships with such phrasal lexical units, there is no sharp divide between lexicon and grammar, but the formal distinction between syntactic and morphological constructs must be preserved.
In the above syntagm, for example, the word 'young' stands in a paradigmatic relationship with the words 'old', 'tall', etc.
The desire to reflect the "common notion that must and may stand in a paradigmatic relationship" (Narrog 2010) is a nice example of top-down thinking.
Throughout Chaucerian Theatricality John Ganim's purpose is not so much to align his author with the creators of dramatic literature, as to divert emphasis away from the hackneyed but resilient concept of a paradigmatic relationship between The Canterbury Tales and works of drama, towards images of the poet as performance-artist and his poem as performance-artifact.
It would also reflect the common notion that must and may stand in a paradigmatic relationship. That must should express the process of evaluation itself is hard to grasp.
Are we to deny a paradigmatic relationship between the English modals as posited by Palmer (1990) or Halliday (2004)?
The articulation of more types of paradigmatic relationships in thesauri and subject heading lists and the presence of alternative classification numbers in different contexts, or even disciplines, offer potential for the web and the hierarchy to work together.
Most of the relationships seen in thesauri and subject heading lists, as those in classification schemes, are limited to paradigmatic relationships. That is, they are intrinsic relationships; they do not depend on context.
A modern dictionary, therefore, will concern itself not only with meanings, but with syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships. (p.
Many thesauri, in accordance with established standards, try to limit their tree structures to paradigmatic relationships, whereas classifications such as the DDC freely admit of both paradigmatic and syntagmatic relationships.