Triple Alliance, War of the

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Triple Alliance, War of the,

1865–70, fought between Paraguay on one side and an alliance of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay on the other. Brazil's military reprisals for injuries to Brazilian subjects in Uruguay's civil war brought a declaration of war against Brazil from Francisco Solano LópezLópez, Francisco Solano
, 1826?–1870, president of Paraguay (1862–70). He was the son of Carlos Antonio López, who made him a brigadier general at 18.
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, Paraguayan dictator, who favored the Blanco regime in Uruguay. Imprudently, he also declared war on Argentina after Bartolomé Mitre refused to allow Paraguayan troops to cross Argentine territory. A secret alliance, made by Brazil and Argentina with Gen. Venancio Flores of the Colorado faction (traditional enemies of the Blancos), brought Uruguay into the war. The heroic defense of Paraguay against powerful invaders lasted five years until the final stand at Cerro Corá, where the entire populous rallied around López. By the end of the war Paraguay was devastated and a considerable part of its male population killed. The war was the brutal consequence of López's provocations as well as of the abusive aggressiveness of the larger powers. It nevertheless opened the way for a development of constitutional government in Paraguay.

Triple Alliance, War of the

 

(in Russian, Paraguayan War), a war of aggression waged by Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay against Paraguay between 1864 and 1870. Great Britain, France, and the USA—seeking unhindered access for their capital in Paraguay—furthered the unleashing of a war that had long been planned by Brazilian slaveowners and the Argentinian bourgeois landowning elite.

The War of the Triple Alliance was preceded by the intervention of Brazil and Argentina into Uruguay, with Uruguay appealing to Paraguay for assistance. Paraguay feared that it would be isolated from the Atlantic Ocean if Brazil annexed Uruguay’s territory and tried to resolve the Brazil-Uruguay conflict peacefully; however, in November 1864, it was drawn into the war. An alliance was soon formed against Paraguay by Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay; Uruguay joined the alliance after it had been occupied by Brazil.

Until May 1866 the fighting took place in Brazil and Argentina; then the Paraguayans defended themselves on their own territory. The allies defeated the Paraguayan Army at Humaitá (July 1868), Pykysyry (December 1868), and Cêrro Corá (March 1870). Contributing to the allies’ victories were their numerical and technological superiority and the aid of Great Britain, as well as a conspiracy of Paraguayan reactionaries against the national government of F. S. López. The country was occupied by allied troops, approximately one-half of its territory was annexed, four-fifths of the population was wiped out, and power was assumed by reactionary landowners and members of the bourgeoisie linked with foreign capital.

References in periodicals archive ?
He summarizes the bargaining model of war and his theory; presents quantitative analysis of international relations data on duration, battle deaths, and total spending, as well as the speed of settlement or conquest, the choice of military strategy, and the nature of war termination; and provides case studies of the Paraguayan War, World War II, the Crimean War, the Pacific War in World War II, the Iran-Iraq War, the Persian Gulf War, the 1856-1857 Anglo-Persian War, the 1982 Falklands conflict, and the Franco-Turkish War.
In subsequent chapters, Fabio Faria Mendes extends the study of recruitment processes through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, highlighting the rights and privileges of class, while Vicktor Izecksohn focuses on the problems associated with the recruitment of slaves during the Paraguayan War of 1865-70.
I Die with My Country: Perspectives on the Paraguayan War, 1864-1870.
The army which at the time of the Paraguayan War (1865-70) served largely as a penal and policing institution, was transformed by the Second World War (which Brazil entered in 1942) into a tool of nation-building which promoted notions of health, eugenic were central areas of national political debate, and they touched principally upon the lives of poor and working class men.
The Allies initially found themselves unprepared to challenge the British-installed Paraguayan war arsenal and well-honed sixty-thousand-man professional army, the continent's largest.
Topics include social inequality, formation of the public space in Brazilian democracy, the Paraguayan War as a constitutional and economic turning point, Max Weber and the interpretation of Brazil, racial politics, literary imagination and modernity, popular music, intellectuals and politics, and the work of "psychological novelist" Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis.
The impetus to reform the Brazilian army's role began in earnest with the mobilization crisis of the Paraguayan War (1864-1870) discussed in more detail below.
The catalyst for reforming the army's recruitment, training, and function was the unprecedented mobilization required by the Paraguayan War (1864-70).
During the ensuing decades, as local interest in the Paraguayan War subsided, so too did attention toward the work of Lopez.
The Paraguayan War (1864-70), in which Paraguayan forces invaded southern Mato Grosso, had revealed the region's strategic vulnerability, leading the monarchy to begin extending telegraph lines toward the province.
After the Independence War in Bahia (1822-1823), the new empire bought out the claims of owners whose slaves had enlisted against the Portuguese and, during the Paraguayan War (1864-1870), the government compensated slaveowners who voluntarily freed their property on the condition that the freedmen immediately enlist.
After the outbreak of the Paraguayan War, the authorities disregarded his discharge papers and sent him to the front; the army finally returned him to Bahia after he suffered a seizure during a battle.